The George Institute for Global Health India

Hyderabad, India

The George Institute for Global Health India

Hyderabad, India
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Wong M.M.Y.,University of British Columbia | Arcand J.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology | Leung A.A.,University of Calgary | Thout S.R.,The George Institute for Global Health India | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Hypertension | Year: 2017

The purpose of this review was to identify, summarize, and critically appraise studies on dietary salt relating to health outcomes that were published from December 2015 to March 2016. The search strategy was adapted from a previous systematic review on dietary salt and health. Overall, 13 studies were included in the review: one study assessed cardiovascular events, nine studies assessed prevalence or incidence of blood pressure or hypertension, one study assessed kidney disease, and two studies assessed other health outcomes (obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease). Four studies were selected for detailed appraisal and commentary. One study met the minimum methodologic criteria and found an increased risk associated with lower sodium intake in patients with heart failure. All other studies identified in this review demonstrated positive associations between dietary salt and adverse health outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Santos J.A.,University of Sydney | Trieu K.,University of Sydney | Raj T.S.,The George Institute for Global Health India | Arcand J.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Hypertension | Year: 2017

This review aims to identify, summarize, and appraise studies reporting on the implementation of salt reduction interventions that were published between March and August 2016. Overall, 40 studies were included: four studies evaluated the impact of salt reduction interventions, while 36 studies were identified as relevant to the design, assessment, and implementation of salt reduction strategies. Detailed appraisal and commentary were undertaken on the four studies that measured the impact of the interventions. Among them, different evaluation approaches were adopted; however, all demonstrated positive health outcomes relating to dietary salt reduction. Three of the four studies measured sodium in breads and provided consistent evidence that sodium reduction in breads is feasible and different intervention options are available. None of the studies were conducted in low- or lower middle–income countries, which stresses the need for more resources and research support for the implementation of salt reduction interventions in these countries. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Riddell M.A.,Monash University | Edwards N.,University of Ottawa | Thompson S.R.,Queen Mary, University of London | Bernabe-Ortiz A.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | And 152 more authors.
Globalization and Health | Year: 2017

Background: The imperative to improve global health has prompted transnational research partnerships to investigate common health issues on a larger scale. The Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases (GACD) is an alliance of national research funding agencies. To enhance research funded by GACD members, this study aimed to standardise data collection methods across the 15 GACD hypertension research teams and evaluate the uptake of these standardised measurements. Furthermore we describe concerns and difficulties associated with the data harmonisation process highlighted and debated during annual meetings of the GACD funded investigators. With these concerns and issues in mind, a working group comprising representatives from the 15 studies iteratively identified and proposed a set of common measures for inclusion in each of the teams' data collection plans. One year later all teams were asked which consensus measures had been implemented. Results: Important issues were identified during the data harmonisation process relating to data ownership, sharing methodologies and ethical concerns. Measures were assessed across eight domains; demographic; dietary; clinical and anthropometric; medical history; hypertension knowledge; physical activity; behavioural (smoking and alcohol); and biochemical domains. Identifying validated measures relevant across a variety of settings presented some difficulties. The resulting GACD hypertension data dictionary comprises 67 consensus measures. Of the 14 responding teams, only two teams were including more than 50 consensus variables, five teams were including between 25 and 50 consensus variables and four teams were including between 6 and 24 consensus variables, one team did not provide details of the variables collected and two teams did not include any of the consensus variables as the project had already commenced or the measures were not relevant to their study. Conclusions: Deriving consensus measures across diverse research projects and contexts was challenging. The major barrier to their implementation was related to the time taken to develop and present these measures. Inclusion of consensus measures into future funding announcements would facilitate researchers integrating these measures within application protocols. We suggest that adoption of consensus measures developed here, across the field of hypertension, would help advance the science in this area, allowing for more comparable data sets and generalizable inferences. © 2017 The Author(s).

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