The Geophysical Institute of Israel

Lod, Israel

The Geophysical Institute of Israel

Lod, Israel
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Ezersky M.G.,The Geophysical Institute of Israel | Ezersky M.G.,Engineering and Environmental Geophysics Ltd. | Frumkin A.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Comptes Rendus - Geoscience | Year: 2016

Evaporite karst has intensively developed recently along the Dead Sea (DS) coastal area in Israel and Jordan. It takes place in very saline groundwater dissolving buried salt layers, causing collapse of the surface. In this paper, groundwater salinity throughout the DS coastal area is investigated using the Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) method. Twenty-eight TEM soundings along the DS coastal area were carried out close to observation boreholes to calibrate resistivity-salinity relationships. Groundwater electrical conductivity was measured in these boreholes, and its salinity was analyzed at the laboratory by the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI). Quantitative relationships between bulk resistivity (ρ x), water resistivity (ρ w) and chloride concentration (C cl) were derived in the resistivity range less than 1.0 Ω·m that enabled to evaluate the salinity of the aquifer in in situ conditions. Average values of the effective porosity of sandy sediments, ϕ e =0.32, and of silty ones, ϕ e =0.44, were used to generate the corresponding Archie equations. The study has shown that a DS aquifer with bulk resistivity in the range of 0.55-1.0 Ω·m contains in pores brine with 50-110 gchloride/l of (22-50% of that in saturated conditions, respectively), i.e. it keeps the potential to dissolve up to 114-174g/l of salt. © 2016.

Levi E.,The Geophysical Institute of Israel | Levi E.,Haifa University | Goldman M.,Haifa University
Journal of Applied Geophysics | Year: 2017

Under certain conditions, multidimensional coastal effect significantly enhances relative target response of the broadside transient marine Ex-Bz system. The effect is caused by a redistribution of the induced currents between the resistive target and the sea bottom compared to that existing in a 1-D geometry. As a result, the effect strongly depends on specific geoelectric conditions in the near-shore environment. The first study of the effect in the Mediterranean coast of central Israel was addressing shallow groundwater problem under specific geoelectric, hydrogeological and geomorphological conditions. Under different conditions (e.g. deep targets and sharp near-shore bathymetry), the influence of the effect on target response might be significantly different. More general analysis carried out in this study comprises various geoelectric scenarios that include both shallow and deep resistive targets at different distances from the shore line as well as various geometries of the target and the near-shore bathymetry. The study includes three major exploration aspects of the system, namely signal detectability, lateral and vertical resolution. Taking into account poor lateral resolution of the classical frequency domain CSEM and the limited application in shallow sea, the described broadside transient Ex-Bz system might represent a desired alternative for delineating shallow and deep resistive targets in transition zone. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Niemi A.,Uppsala University | Bensabat J.,Environmental and Water Resources Engineering EWRE Ltd. | Shtivelman V.,The Geophysical Institute of Israel | Edlmann K.,University of Edinburgh | And 14 more authors.
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control | Year: 2016

This paper provides an overview of the site characterization work at the Heletz site, in preparation to scientifically motivated CO2 injection experiments. The outcomes are geological and hydrogeological models with associated medium properties and baseline conditions. The work has consisted on first re-analyzing the existing data base from ∼40 wells from the previous oil exploration studies, based on which a 3-dimensional structural model was constructed along with first estimates of the properties. The CO2 injection site is located on the saline edges of the Heletz depleted oil field. Two new deep (>1600m) wells were drilled within the injection site and from these wells a detailed characterization program was carried out, including coring, core analyses, fluid sampling, geophysical logging, seismic survey, in situ hydraulic testing and measurement of the baseline pressure and temperature. The results are presented and discussed in terms of characteristics of the reservoir and cap-rock, the mineralogy, water composition and other baseline conditions, porosity, permeability, capillary pressure and relative permeability. Special emphasis is given to petrophysical properties of the reservoir and the seal, such as comparing the estimates determined by different methods, looking at their geostatistical distributions as well as changes in them when exposed to CO2. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2008.5.2.4 | Award Amount: 10.56M | Year: 2009

The objectives of MUSTANG are to develop and disseminate a comprehensive set of methodologies and tools for the assessment and characterization of deep saline aquifers for CO2 storage, providing measures of performance and risk that are necessary for a cost-benefit analysis, ensuring public confidence and acceptance and promoting its deployment. Novel CO2 storage specific field investigation technologies and methodologies will be developed, allowing an improved determination of the relevant physical properties of the site and enabling short response times in the detection and monitoring of CO2 plumes during both the injection and storage phases. We also aim at an improved understanding of the processes of CO2 spreading by means of theoretical investigations, laboratory experiments, natural analogue studies and field scale injection tests, including those relevant to the 1) seal integrity; 2) the negative impact of possibly conductive faults; 3) formation heterogeneities; 4) CO2 trapping mechanisms; and 5) effective treatment for the wide span of spatial and temporal scales of the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical processes. Based on the improved process models, conceptual and numerical models will be developed for analyzing CO2 injection and storage and implemented at six test sites representing different geological settings and geographical locations in Europe, also addressing the impact of the CO2 injection on seal integrity. The guidelines to be developed will be integrated into a decision support system, which will include a risk assessment component and liabilities consideration. The DSS will be tested and validated at the various project test sites. Special attention has been devoted to promote measures capable of enhancing public outreach and acceptance and dissemination of the methodologies and technologies to the wide public.

Sagy Y.,Tel Aviv University | Sagy Y.,Geological Survey of Israel | Sagy Y.,The Geophysical Institute of Israel | Gvirtzman Z.,Geological Survey of Israel | And 3 more authors.
Tectonophysics | Year: 2015

Recent giant gas discoveries within deeply buried structural highs in the middle of the Levant basin have attracted the attention of the industrial and academic communities striving to understand the origin of such structures, their relations to the tectonic history of the basin, and their evolution through time. Here we focus on the Jonah high, which is one of the largest structures in the basin and is particularly enigmatic in its geometry, dimensions and location compared to nearby structures. It is buried under more than 3. km of Late Tertiary sediments, and is associated with one of the largest magnetic anomalies in the basin, though no significant gravity anomaly is observed. Previous studies raised several possibilities explaining its origin: an ancient horst related to the early stage of basin formation (Late Paleozoic or early Mesozoic); a Syrian Arc fold (Late Cretaceous to Neogene); a giant volcanic seamount; and an intrusive magmatic body.A reconstruction of the evolution of this structure is proposed here based on newly produced pre-stack depth migration of five selected seismic reflection lines crossing the Jonah high combined with a basin-wide interpretation of more than 500 2-D time-migrated lines. We suggest that the Jonah high is a horst bounded by grabens, most probably formed during continental breakup related to the Neo-Tethys formation. However, unlike other extensional structures that were reactivated and inverted during the Syrian Arc deformation, the Jonah high was never reactivated. Rather, it formed a prominent seamount that persisted for 120-140. Ma until the Early Miocene, when it was finally buried. In a wider perspective the Jonah horst is similar to the Eratosthenes seamount, a fragment of continental crust between the Levant and Herodotus basins. © 2015 Elsevier B.V..

Keydar S.,The Geophysical Institute of Israel | Pelman D.,The Geophysical Institute of Israel | Ezersky M.,The Geophysical Institute of Israel
Journal of Applied Geophysics | Year: 2010

Detecting and mapping inhomogeneities localized near surface is an important problem in a variety of applications, such as engineering site investigation, environmental studies, archeology and others. Typical examples of such inhomogeneous objects are sinkholes, cavities, caves, tunnels, etc. Different geophysical techniques have been developed for this purpose. Among them a method utilizes the waves diffracted on, or scattered from, subsurface objects. The method was successfully applied to detect local heterogeneities related to sinkholes in the Dead Sea coast area. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Gardosh M.A.,The Geophysical Institute of Israel | Garfunkel Z.,Hebrew University | Druckman Y.,Geological Survey of Israel | Buchbinder B.,Geological Survey of Israel
Geological Society Special Publication | Year: 2010

At the time of the opening of the Tethys Ocean the northern edge of Gondwana was affected by several rifting events. In this study, we used data from deep exploration wells, seismic profiles, and seismic depth maps to reconstruct the pattern of Tethyan rifting in the Levant region and to investigate its effects on the evolution of the Levant crust. The results show a several hundred kilometre wide deformation zone, comprised of graben and horst structures that extend from the inner part of the Levant to the marine basin offshore Israel. The structures are dominated by sets of NE-SW and NNE-SSW oriented normal faults with vertical offsets in the range of 1-8 km. Rifting was associated with a NW-SE direction of extension, approximately perpendicular to the present-day Mediterranean coast. Faulting activity progressed over a period of 120 Ma and took place in three main pulses: Late Palaeozoic (Carboniferous to Permian); Middle to Late Triassic; and Early to Middle Jurassic. The last, and the most intense, tectonic phase post-dates the activity in other rifted margins of northern Gondwana. Rifting was associated with the modification and stretching of the Levant crust. Our results demonstrate an extension discrepancy between the brittle deformation in the upper crust and the amount of total crustal thinning. Seismic reflection data shows that the Levant Basin lacks the characteristics of typical rifted margins, either volcanic or non-volcanic. The evolution of the basin may be explained by depth-dependant stretching, associated with the upwelling of divergent mantle flow and removal of lower crustal layers by decoupling along deep detachment faults. © 2010 The Geological Society of London.

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