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Liu J.,Guiyang Medical College | Liu J.,Affiliated Hospital of Guiyang Medical College | Liu J.,The General Hospital of Huabei Oil Field Company | Han Z.,AmCell Gene Co. | And 2 more authors.
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine | Year: 2016

Inflammation-associated overproliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) is considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH). The administration of mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned media (MSC-CM) has displayed benefits in the treatment of PH, however, the exact mechanism has yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to determine whether MSC-CM is able to suppress overproliferation of PASMCs in PH via immunoregulation. By the administration of MSC-CM to monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH rats, and the development of an in vitro co-culture system comprised of PASMCs and activated T cells, the therapeutic effects of MSC-CM on PH, and the changes in the expression of correlated factors, including TNF-α, calcineurin (CaN) and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), were assessed. Immunohistochemical staining results indicated that MSC-CM was able to significantly suppress the production of TNF-α in MCT-induced PH and co-culture systems; and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed significant downregulation of the expression of CaN and NFATc2 in PASMCs (P<0.01). Furthermore, MSC-CM was able to significantly suppress CaN activity and NFATc2 activation (P<0.01), thus inhibiting the overproliferation of PASMCs. Finally, MSC-CM improved abnormalities in hemodynamics and pulmonary histology in MCT-induced PH. In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggest that administration of MSC-CM has the potential to suppress inflammation-associated overproliferation of PASMCs due to its immunosuppressive effects in PH and, thus, may serve as a beneficial therapeutic strategy. © 2016, Spandidos Publications. All rights reserved. Source


Liu J.-F.,Guiyang Medical College | Liu J.-F.,The General Hospital of Huabei Oil Field Company | du Z.-D.,Capital Medical University | Chen Z.,Capital Medical University | He Z.-X.,Guiyang Medical College
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine | Year: 2014

The number and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may be a predictive factor for the severity and outcome of cardiovascular disease. However, the manipulation of bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMC) cultures for EPCs is an elaborate and difficult procedure in small experimental animals. The present study aimed to assess the feasibility of whole bone marrow cell (WBMC) culture for expanding EPCs in small experimental animals. C57BL/6 mice (age, 3-4 weeks; weight, 9.47±0.76 g) were used as the experimental animals, and WBMCs were isolated from the femora and tibiae and cultured in endothelial cell growth medium-2. A BMMC culture for EPCs was used as a control. EPC growth, phenotype and functions were assessed in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that EPCs were easily obtained from a WBMC culture in vitro. The cells exhibited similar growth and biological characteristics when compared with the EPCs derived from the traditional BMMC culture system. Thus, the cells were able to simultaneously bind to lectin and cause phagocytosis of acetylated-low density lipoproteins. In addition, the cells exhibited high expression levels of cluster of differentiation 34 and fetal liver kinase 1, and possessed similar functional properties to BMMC-derived EPCs, including vascular network formation, proliferation, adhesion and migration abilities in vitro. Thus, WBMC-derived EPCs can improve the outcome of pulmonary vascular disease when transplanted into a monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension mouse model. The results of the present study indicated that the WBMC culture system is a more convenient and effective method of obtaining and expanding EPCs compared with BMMC culture, with the advantage of a simplified procedure. Source


Liu J.-F.,Guiyang Medical College | Liu J.-F.,The General Hospital of Huabei Oil Field Company | Du Z.-D.,Capital Medical University | Chen Z.,Capital Medical University | And 2 more authors.
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine | Year: 2013

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has exhibited efficacy at preventing the progression of pulmonary hypertension (PH); however, the exact mechanism is not completely clear. The aim of the present study was to assess whether this protective effect was mediated by the upregulation of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) via the nitric oxide (NO) system. PH was induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by the administration of a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (MCT). The rats were treated with recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF, 50 μg/kg/day) by subcutaneous injection from day five to day seven subsequent to the injection of MCT. Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 4 mg/kg/day) was intragastrically administered in addition to rhG-CSF as a negative intervention. The changes in hemodynamics and histology, the number and function of circulating EPCs and the concentration of plasma NO were evaluated. With the occurrence of PH in the rat model, the number and function of circulating EPCs were demonstrated to be markedly downregulated. Moreover, a reduced plasma concentration of NO was observed, which was positively correlated with the number of circulating EPCs. Administration of rhG-CSF elevated the plasma level of NO, upregulated the number and function of circulating EPCs and effectively improved pulmonary hemodynamics and vascular reconstruction. Furthermore, the positive correlation between the levels of plasma NO and circulating EPCs was also observed in the rhG-CSF treatment group. However, the protective effect of rhG-CSF in PH was attenuated by L-NAME, which mediated the downregulation of NO and the EPCs. Thus, the present study suggests that G-CSF may attenuate the progression of MCT-induced PH by improving vascular injury repair mechanisms via the NO-mediated upregulation of EPCs. Source


Liu J.,Guiyang Medical College | Liu J.,The General Hospital of Huabei Oil Field Company | Han Z.,AmCell Gene Co. | He Z.,Guiyang Medical College
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine | Year: 2015

Inflammation and hyperproliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) is considered the primary pathological feature of pulmonary hypertension (PH). The present study determined that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) suppress the expression of calcineurin (CaN) and nuclear factor of activated T‑cells (NFAT) in the pulmonary arteries of rats, and this may exert a therapeutic effect on PH. The potential therapeutic effects of MSCs on PH were assessed via the transplantation of human umbilical cord‑derived MSCs, which were cultured in serum‑free medium, into a monocrotaline (MCT)‑induced PH rat model. Subsequently, the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α in lung tissue and plasma, and of CaN and NFATc2 in pulmonary arteries were assessed. In the rat model of MCT‑induced PH, investigated in the present study, TNF‑α expression levels were detected in the lung tissue, and the levels of TNF‑α in the plasma were increased. Furthermore, in addition to hemodynamic changes and the evident medial hypertrophy of the pulmonary muscular arterioles, CaN and NFATc2 expression levels were significantly upregulated in the pulmonary arteries. In the present study, the transplantation of MSCs, cultured in serum‑free medium, decreased the levels of TNF‑α in the lung tissue and plasma of rats, and downregulated CaN and NFATc2 expression in the pulmonary arteries. Furthermore, hemodynamic abnormalities and medial hypertrophy of the pulmonary muscular arterioles were notably improved. Therefore, the results of the present study may suggest that the administration of MSCs in PH may suppress the production of TNF‑α, and downregulate the expression of CaN and NFATc2 in pulmonary arteries, which may provide an effective treatment for PH by suppressing the pathological proliferation of PASMCs. © 2015, Spandidos Publications. All rights reserved. Source

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