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Davidsonville, MD, United States

Samango-Sprouse C.A.,George Washington University | Samango-Sprouse C.A.,Neurodevelopmental Diagnostic Center for Young Children | Stapleton E.J.,The Focus Foundation | Mitchell F.L.,Childrens National Medical Center | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2014

The aim of the study was to examine the impact of familial learning disabilities (FLD) on the phenotypic profile of 47, XXY males and the possibility that 47, XXY males with more severe cognitive deficits may be partially a consequence of familial dyslexia/reading disorder. We wondered if FLD could pose an additional risk for complex neurodevelopmental differences in 47, XXY. The neurodevelopmental profile of males with 47, XXY has been characterized by developmental dyspraxia, language-based learning disorders, executive dysfunction, reading, and attentional deficits. One hundred eighteen boys with 47, XXY diagnosed prenatally who did not receive early hormonal treatment were divided into two groups based on positive histories of FLD and given comprehensive neurodevelopmental evaluations between 36 and 108 months. The assessments included intelligence (nonverbal and verbal), neuromotor (fine and gross), speech, and language. The group with FLD performed significantly lower in multiple neurodevelopmental domains of the Wechsler of VIQ P=0.015, FSIQ P=0.0005, the Brief IQ P=0.0525 of the Leiter, in Auditory Comprehension P=0.0505, Expressive Communication P=0.0055, and neuromotor domains of Manual Coordination P=0.0032, Fine Motor Control P=0.0378, and Motor Coordination P=0.008. Our study demonstrates the influence of FLD on neurodevelopment and expands the phenotypic profile of 47, XXY, suggesting some neurodevelopmental variability is attributable to other factors than the additional X. FLD may increase the vulnerability of the 47, XXY children and anticipatory guidance should be provided to families. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Samango-Sprouse C.,The Focus Foundation | Samango-Sprouse C.,George Washington University | Samango-Sprouse C.,Childrens National Medical Center | Samango-Sprouse C.,Neurodevelpmental Diagnostic Center for Children | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2015

Fourty eight, XXXX is a rare chromosomal aneuploidy associated with neurocognitive deficits, speech and language disorders and executive dysfunction but the scarcity and variability of reported cases limit our understanding of the 48, XXXX phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the neurodevelopmental profile of three young females with 48, XXXX. Patient 1 (age=11.0), Patient 2 (age=10.9), and Patient 3 (age=6.4) were evaluated using comprehensive neurodevelopmental assessments. Parent questionnaires were completed to assess behavioral and psychosocial domains including executive function, ADHD and anxiety. Nonverbal intelligence quotients were 56, 80, and 91 for Patients 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There were significantly impaired visual motor capacities in graphomotor and perceptual domains below the 5th centile in Patients 1 and 2, and mildly impaired visual perception skills in Patient 3. All three patients had Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) but of varying severity and similar executive dysfunction, externalizing problems and social difficulties. Familial learning disabilities (FLD) in Patient 1 and the co-occurrence of ADHD in Patient's 1 and 2 may contribute to their more impaired cognitive performances relative to Patient 3 who is the second reported case of 48, XXXX to have normal intellect. These distinct and overlapping characteristics expand the phenotypic profile of 48, XXXX and may be used in the counseling of families and treatment of children with 48, XXXX. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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