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Wu Y.,Zhejiang University | Qian Y.,Zhejiang University | Pan Y.,Zhejiang University | Li P.,Zhejiang University | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Nutrition

Background & aims: The association between coronary heart disease (CHD) and dietary fiber intake is not consistent, especially for the subtypes of dietary fiber. The aim of our study was to conduct a meta-analysis of existing cohort published studies assessing the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of CHD, and quantitatively estimating their dose-response relationships. Methods: We searched PubMed and EMBASE before May 2013. Random-effect model was used to calculate the pool relative risk (RRs) for the incidence and mortality of CHD. Dose-response, subgroup analyses based on fiber subtypes, heterogeneity and publication bias were also carried out. Results: Eighteen studies involving 672,408 individuals were finally included in the present study. The pooled-adjusted RRs of coronary heart disease for the highest versus lowest category of fiber intake were 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91-0.96, P<0.001) for incidence of all coronary events and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.76-0.91, P<0.001) for mortality. Further subgroup analyses based on fiber subtypes (cereal, fruit, and vegetable fiber), indicated that RRs were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.85-0.99, P=0.032), 0.92 (95% CI, 0.86-0.98, P=0.01), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.89-1.01, P=0.098) respectively for all coronary event and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.72-0.92, P=0.001), 0.68 (95% CI, 0.43-1.07, P=0.094), 0.91 (95% CI, 0.74-1.12, P=0.383) for mortality. In addition, a significant dose-response relationship was observed between fiber intake and the incidence and mortality of CHD (. P<0.001). Conclusions: Our results indicate that consumption of dietary fiber is inversely associated with risk of coronary heart disease, especially for fiber from cereals and fruits. Besides, soluble and insoluble fibers have the similar effect. A significant dose-response relationship is also observed between fiber intake and CHD risk. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Source

Zhang J.-L.,Zhejiang University | Xu Y.,The First Peoples Hospital of Hangzhou | Shen J.,Zhejiang University
International Journal of Molecular Sciences

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is elevated during the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD), which damages vascular endothelial cells to cause systemic vasculitis. In the current study, we investigated the potential role of cordycepin on TNFα expression in both lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and ex vivo cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of KD patients. We found that cordycepin significantly suppressed LPS-induced TNFα expression and production in mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs)). Meanwhile, cordycepin alleviated TNFα production in KD patients' PBMCs. PBMCs from healthy controls had a much lower level of basal TNF-α content than that of KD patients. LPS-induced TNF-α production in healthy controls' PBMCs was also inhibited by cordycepin. For the mechanism study, we discovered that cordycepin activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling in both KD patients' PBMCs and LPS-stimulated macrophages, which mediated cordycepin-induced inhibition against TNFα production. AMPK inhibition by its inhibitor (compound C) or by siRNA depletion alleviated cordycepin's effect on TNFα production. Further, we found that cordycepin inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation in LPS-stimulate RAW 264.7 cells or healthy controls' PBMCs. PBMCs of KD patients showed higher basal level of ROS and NF-κB activation, which was also inhibited by cordycepin co-treatment. In conclusion, our data showed that cordycepin inhibited TNFα production, which was associated with AMPK activation as well as ROS and NF-κB inhibition. The results of this study should have significant translational relevance in managing this devastating disease. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Nie W.,Zhejiang University | Liu Y.,Zhejiang University | Ye J.,The First Peoples Hospital of Hangzhou | Shi L.,Zhejiang University | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Respiratory Journal

Introduction: The effects of intrapleural fibrinolysis for treating pleural empyema and parapneumonic effusion remain uncertain. Objectives: We conducted a meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the efficacy of intrapleural instillation of fibrinolytics for treating pleural empyema and parapneumonic effusion. Methods: Medline, Web of Science, Ovid and regulatory documents up to June 10, 2012 were searched. We selected RCTs on intrapleural fibrinolysis vs placebo control treatment for pleural empyema and parapneumonic effusion. The meta-analysis was used to determine the odds ratios (OR) for death, surgical intervention and severe side effects, and weighted mean differences were used to estimate lengths of hospital stays. Results: Ten trials with a total of 977 patients were included. Compared with a placebo, intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy decreased the OR for surgical intervention [OR=0.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10-0.60] and the length of hospital stays (weighted mean difference=-6.47; 95% CI: -8.87, -4.08). Intrapleural fibrinolysis was associated with a non-significant reduction in mortality rate (OR=1.16; 95% CI: 0.71-1.89) and a non-significant increase in severe side effects (OR=1.92; 95% CI: 0.87-4.21). Subgroup analyses indicated that urokinase agents had marked positive effects on reducing surgical intervention (OR=0.33; 95% CI: 0.14-0.78), but neither streptokinase nor tissue plasminogen activator did. Conclusions: The present results show that intrapleural fibrinolysis with urokinase may be potentially effective for reducing the need for surgery. Intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy is effective for shortening the lengths of hospital stays without increasing the incidence of severe side effects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Yang J.,The First Peoples Hospital of Hangzhou
Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A

To explore the feasibility of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in pregnant women with severe acute biliary pancreatitis. In total, 24 pregnant patients with severe acute biliary pancreatitis were enrolled in our study between January 2003 and January 2008. Emergency ERCP and endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) without fluoroscopy were performed successfully in all 24 patients within 12-72 hours of admission. Once stabilized, 15 patients in late pregnancy underwent a second ERCP with fluoroscopy to remove common bile duct (CBD) stones after pregnancy termination. Nine patients in early or mid-pregnancy continued gestating and underwent endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD) with a second ERCP without fluoroscopy, and their stents and CBD stones were removed during a third ERCP with fluoroscopy 1 week after parturition. Among the mothers, all 24 patients were cured, and none of them died. The CBD stones in all 24 patients were completely removed with a two-step ERCP, and no serious post-ERCP complications occurred, although 2 patients had mild hemorrhage in the final ERCP to remove CBD stones. No recurrent pancreatitis or cholangitis occurred in patients who underwent ERBD. Among the infants, all survived without developmental problems or abnormality. Twenty infants were born at term; four infants were born prematurely at 35-37 weeks of gestation without developmental problems or complications. Emergency ERCP and ENBD without fluoroscopy in pregnant women with severe acute biliary pancreatitis are feasible and safe for both mothers and infants. It is also appropriate to remove CBD stones with two-step ERCP in pregnant women according to the stage of pregnancy. Source

Yang J.F.,The First Peoples Hospital of Hangzhou
Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery

To summarize the experience with duodenal perforations to determine a systematic management approach. A total of 11 250 patients who received endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography(ERCP) in The First People's Hospital of Hangzhou from January 2005 to December 2011 and 15(0.13%) patients developed duodenal perforation. The clinical data of these 15 cases were analyzed. There were 6 males and 9 females. The age ranged from 45 to 87 years. Seven patients developed perforation after sphincterotomy of the duodenal papilla. Five patients perforated due to the endoscope, and 3 due to guide wire and net basket. All the patients presented varying degree of abdominal pain and distention. CT scan of the upper abdomen showed peripancreatic and retroperitoneal air or fluid. Diagnosis was confirmed in 7 patients using abdominal X-ray. Eight patients developed postoperative abdominal pain and distention, subcutaneous emphysema, and fever 3 hours to 5 days after surgery, and diagnosis was confirmed using plain abdominal X-ray or upper abdominal CT scan. Nine patients were managed conservatively, 4 of whom were diagnosed within 3 hours after perforation and were managed by endoscopic metal clip and nasobiliary drainage and no abdominal abscesses developed. The length of hospital stay ranged from 10 to 15 days. Five patients were diagnosed 10 hour to 5 days after perforation, of whom 2 had intestinal fistula, 4 had abscess, and one died, the length of hospital stay ranged from 15 to 105 days. Six patients were managed surgically, 4 received surgery within 4 to 8 hours after perforation and no abscess developed, and the length of hospital stay ranged from 18 to 21 days. The other 2 patients were operated at 24 hours and 30 hours after perforation respectively, one of whom had recurrent intra-abdominal bleeding after surgery and one died from intra-abdominal abscess and multiple organ failure. For duodenal perforations related to ERCP, early diagnosis can be made by prompt intraoperative identification and postoperative CT scan. Endoscopic metal clip and nasobiliary drainage should be considered aside from surgical intervention. Source

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