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Segrey C.V.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Senesey S.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Senesey S.,University of California at Los Angeles | Lopontey S.,Italian National Cancer Institute | And 10 more authors.
mAbs | Year: 2016

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are modification enzymes that regulate a plethora of biological processes. HDAC1, a crucial epigenetic modifier, is deregulated in cancer and subjected to a variety of post-translational modifications. Here, we describe the generation of a new monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes a novel highly dynamic prophase phosphorylation of serine 406-HDAC1, providing a powerful tool for detecting early mitotic cells. © 2016 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Hosono Y.,Tohoku University | Abe T.,The FIRC Institute for Molecular Oncology Foundation | Ishiai M.,Kyoto University | Takata M.,Kyoto University | And 2 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2011

DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by etoposide, an inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II, are repaired mainly by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Unexpectedly, it was found that at high doses of etoposide, proteins involved in NHEJ, such as KU70/80, DNA-PKcs and ARTEMIS/SNM1C, trigger apoptosis rather than repair of DSBs. Because ARTEMIS is a member of the SNM1 protein family that includes SNM1A and APOLLO/SNM1B, this study examined whether SNM1A and/or APOLLO are also involved in etoposide-induced apoptosis. Using SNM1A-/- and APOLLO-/- cells, it was found that both SNM1A and APOLLO participate in etoposide-induced apoptosis. Although cell viability monitored by MTT assay did not differ between SNM1A-/-/. APOLLO-/-/. ARTEMIS-/-, SNM1A-/-/. APOLLO-/-, and single gene knockout cells, DNA fragmentation monitored by TUNEL assay differed between these cells, suggesting that the three SNM1 family nucleases function independently, at least during the induction of apoptotic DNA fragmentation. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Monterisi S.,Italian National Cancer Institute | D'Ario G.,Italian National Cancer Institute | D'Ario G.,Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics | Dama E.,Italian National Cancer Institute | And 18 more authors.
Molecular Oncology | Year: 2015

Around 50% of all human microRNAs reside within introns of coding genes and are usually co-transcribed. Gene expression datasets, therefore, should contain a wealth of miRNA-relevant latent information, exploitable for many basic and translational research aims. The present study was undertaken to investigate this possibility. We developed an in silico approach to identify intronic-miRNAs relevant to breast cancer, using public gene expression datasets. This led to the identification of a miRNA signature for aggressive breast cancer, and to the characterization of novel roles of selected miRNAs in cancer-related biological phenotypes. Unexpectedly, in a number of cases, expression regulation of the intronic-miRNA was more relevant than the expression of their host gene. These results provide a proof of principle for the validity of our intronic miRNA mining strategy, which we envision can be applied not only to cancer research, but also to other biological and biomedical fields. © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

Peleg B.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Disanza A.,The FIRC Institute for Molecular Oncology Foundation | Scita G.,The FIRC Institute for Molecular Oncology Foundation | Scita G.,University of Milan | Gov N.,Weizmann Institute of Science
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Cells exhibit propagating membrane waves which involve the actin cytoskeleton. One type of such membranal waves are Circular Dorsal Ruffles (CDR) which are related to endocytosis and receptor internalization. Experimentally, CDRs have been associated with membrane bound activators of actin polymerization of concave shape. We present experimental evidence for the localization of convex membrane proteins in these structures, and their insensitivity to inhibition of myosin II contractility in immortalized mouse embryo fibroblasts cell cultures. These observations lead us to propose a theoretical model which explains the formation of these waves due to the interplay between complexes that contain activators of actin polymerization and membrane-bound curved proteins of both types of curvature (concave and convex). Our model predicts that the activity of both types of curved proteins is essential for sustaining propagating waves, which are abolished when one type of curved activator is removed. Within this model waves are initiated when the level of actin polymerization induced by the curved activators is higher than some threshold value, which allows the cell to control CDR formation. We demonstrate that the model can explain many features of CDRs, and give several testable predictions. This work demonstrates the importance of curved membrane proteins in organizing the actin cytoskeleton and cell shape. © 2011 Peleg et al.

Abe T.,The FIRC Institute for Molecular Oncology Foundation | Branzei D.,The FIRC Institute for Molecular Oncology Foundation
DNA Repair | Year: 2014

Transient induction or suppression of target genes is useful to study the function of toxic or essential genes in cells. Here we apply a Tet-On 3G system to DT40 lymphoma B cell lines, validating it for three different genes. Using this tool, we then show that overexpression of the chicken BRC4 repeat of the tumor suppressor BRCA2 impairs cell proliferation and induces chromosomal breaks. Mechanistically, high levels of BRC4 suppress double strand break-induced homologous recombination, inhibit the formation of RAD51 recombination repair foci, reduce cellular resistance to DNA damaging agents and induce a G2 damage checkpoint-mediated cell-cycle arrest. The above phenotypes are mediated by BRC4 capability to bind and inhibit RAD51. The toxicity associated with BRC4 overexpression is exacerbated by chemotherapeutic agents and reversed by RAD51 overexpression, but it is neither aggravated nor suppressed by a deficit in the non-homologous end-joining pathway of double strand break repair. We further find that the endogenous BRCA2 mediates the cytotoxicity associated with BRC4 induction, thus underscoring the possibility that BRC4 or other domains of BRCA2 cooperate with ectopic BRC4 in regulating repair activities or mitotic cell division. In all, the results demonstrate the utility of the Tet-On 3G system in DT40 research and underpin a model in which BRC4 role on cell proliferation and chromosome repair arises primarily from its suppressive role on RAD51 functions. © 2014 The Authors.

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