Fresh dairy manure as a substitute for chemical fertilization in growing wheat forage; effects on soil properties, forage yield and composition, weed contamination, and hay intake and digestibility by sheep
Miron J.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization |
Yosef E.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization |
Nikbachat M.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization |
Zenou A.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization |
And 3 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2011
Two experiments were conducted in two consecutive years. Exp. 1 (2008) was aimed at examining the effects of fertilizing three 1-ha fields with fresh dairy manure that was either weed contaminated (CM) or non-contaminated (NCM), as compared to chemical fertilization (CF). Five 10-m 2 subplots in each field treatment were analyzed for yield, composition, and in vitro digestibility of forage mass, wheat and weed plants, and changes in soil properties. Higher forage wheat yields were obtained in the CM and NCM treatments (9.45 and 9.41t dry matter (DM)/ha, respectively) than in the CF treatment (7.56tDM/ha, P<0.05). None of the field treatments included herbicide application, and all fields were highly contaminated by weed mass (419-580g/kg DM). Weed profile in the three field treatments was similar to that observed in neighboring fields. Sheep intake of diets containing 900g/kg wheat hay was highest in the NCM treatment, lowest in the CM treatment and intermediate in the CF treatment. Digestibility of dietary DM by the sheep followed an opposite trend, but neutral detergent fiber (aNDFom) digestibility was similar in the three treatments (0.64-0.66). Exp. 2 (2009) measured the cumulative effect of fresh dairy manure fertilization applied at two levels, 60 and 120m 3 NCM/ha (designated 60-NCM and 120-NCM, respectively), with CF as the control treatment. The three fields were sprayed with herbicide to reduce weed contamination (<20g/kg). Wheat yield was higher in the 120-NCM treatment (14.5tDM/ha) than in the 60-NCM and CF treatments (12.5 and 12.6tDM/ha, respectively). Sheep intake of rations based on wheat hay from the three treatments was similar (781g DM/d). Digestibility by sheep of DM and crude protein were higher in hays from treatments 60-NCM and 120-NCM than from the CF treatment. Pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli and Salmonella, did not survive in either the soil or the wheat plants during the growing seasons. The increase in wheat yield and digestibility due to dairy manure fertilization was related to the improvement in soil water retention and nutrient availability following this treatment. Adoption of this technology is expected to increase net profits in the dairy industry. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Dag A.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization |
Naor A.,Golan Research Institute |
Ben-Gal A.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization |
Harlev G.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2015
BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades, the area of cultivated super-high-density olive orchards has increased rapidly. Water stress is an important tool in super-high-density orchards to reduce tree growth and promote suitability for overhead mechanical harvesters. Little is known regarding the effect of water stress in super-high-density orchards on oil quality parameters. In this study the effect of irrigation rate on oil quality parameters was evaluated in a six-year-old super-high-density 'Koreneiki' olive orchard for five consecutive seasons. Five water status levels, determined by irrigating in order to maintain various midday stem water potential threshold values (-1.5, -2, -2.5, -3 and -4 MPa), were applied during the oil accumulation stage. RESULTS: The MUFA/PUFA ratio and free fatty acid content generally decreased as a function of increasing tree water stress. In most seasons a reduction in polyphenols was found with decreasing irrigation level. Peroxide value was not affected by the water stress level. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that limiting irrigation and exposure of olive trees to water stress in a super-high-density orchard lowers free fatty acid content and therefore benefits oil quality. However, the decreased MUFA/PUFA ratio and the reduction in polyphenol content that were also found under increased water stress negatively influence oil quality. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Ben-Gal A.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization |
Yermiyahu U.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization |
Zipori I.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization |
Presnov E.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization |
And 2 more authors.
Irrigation Science | Year: 2011
Water requirements for olive oil production and the effects of deficit irrigation were determined while considering the relative fruit loads on trees occurring as a result of biennial bearing cycles. Two Israeli olive (Olea europaea) varieties (Barnea and Souri) were evaluated for growth and yield parameters in a 4-year field study where five relative irrigation rates were applied. Increasing irrigation increased stem water potential, vegetative growth, and olive fruit yield with the increases tapering off at application rates reaching 75-100% of potential crop evapotranspiration. Tree water status, growth, and fruit characteristic parameters were highly affected by both fruit load and by irrigation level. Oil yield increases as a function of increased irrigation were initiated for each cultivar only following an 'off' season when the treatments lead to higher vegetative growth. The increased oil yields as a function of increased irrigation were primarily explained by higher tree-scale capacity for carrying fruit, especially as irrigation alleviated measureable water stress. For the Barnea cultivar in 'on' years, a secondary effect due to increased oil per fruit as irrigation increased was evident, particularly at the higher application rates. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Glasser T.A.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization |
Landau S.Y.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization |
Ungar E.D.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization |
Perevolotsky A.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization |
And 4 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2012
Foraging behaviors of the Damascus, Mamber and Boer goat breeds were compared on shrublands of the South Carmel mountain ridge of Israel. Dietary choice was determined for a group of yearling animals of each breed (n=. 11 or 12), housed and grazed separately to prevent social facilitation, during a total of 4 (Mamber) or 5 (Damascus and Boer) sessions of four days each in fall 2004 and spring 2005. The proportions in the diet (including concentrate feed) of three main dietary components - Pistacia lentiscus L. (20% tannins), Phillyrea latifolia L. (3% tannins) and herbaceous vegetation - were determined by application of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy to faecal samples (n=. 147). On average, P. lentiscus constituted 14.9% of the DM ingested by Damascus goats, but only 5.6 and 5.0% of that ingested by Mamber and Boer goats, respectively. In the fall season, Damascus goats ingested diets richer in tannins than did Mamber or Boer goats (P<. 0.001). In the spring, the contribution of herbaceous vegetation to DM intake was higher in Mamber goats (38.5%) than in the other breeds (27.7%). Boer goats selected the most nutritious diets in terms of crude protein (CP) content and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD). Despite their differences in foraging selectivity, the local Damascus and Mamber goats selected similar diets in terms of CP and IVDMD. Our data suggests that, of the three breeds examined, the Damascus should provide the best control of P. lentiscus encroachment and the least competition with cattle for green grass in the spring. These findings may help to develop ecologically sound ways of controlling the spread of the tannin-rich shrub P. lentiscus L., which threatens rangeland biodiversity and amenity values in the Mediterranean climatic region of Israel. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..