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Li M.,IUF Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine | Li M.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Li M.,China Medical City Institute of Health science | Li M.,Fudan University | And 26 more authors.
Journal of Dermatological Science

Background: Recently, we showed that outdoor air pollution exposure from traffic and industry is associated with an increased risk of skin aging in Caucasian women. In China, indoor air pollution exposure caused by the use of solid fuels like coal is a major health problem and might also increase the risk of skin aging in Chinese women. : Objective: As cooking with solid fuels is a major source of indoor air pollution exposure in China, we aimed to test if cooking with solid fuels is associated with more pronounced skin aging in Chinese women. : Methods: We conducted two cross-sectional studies in China to assess the association between cooking with solid fuels and signs of skin aging. In Pingding (in northern China) we assessed N = 405 and in Taizhou (in southern China) N = 857 women between 30 and 90 years of age. Skin aging was evaluated by the SCINEXA™ score. Indoor air pollution exposure, sun exposure, smoking and other confounders were assessed by questionnaires. Associations were then tested by linear and logistic regression analyses adjusted for further confounders. : Results: The analysis showed that cooking with solid fuels was significantly associated with a 5-8% more severe wrinkle appearance on face and an 74% increased risk of having fine wrinkles on back of hands in both studies combined, independent of age and other influences on skin aging. : Conclusion: The present studies thus corroborate our previous finding that air pollution is associated with skin aging and extend it by showing that indoor air pollution might be another risk factor for skin aging. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Source

Vierkotter A.,IUF Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine | Huls A.,IUF Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine | Yamamoto A.,Nagoya City University | Stolz S.,IUF Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Dermatological Science

Background: It has been suggested that extrinsic skin ageing manifests differently in Caucasians versus East Asians. In particular, from previous studies it was concluded that Caucasians are more prone to develop wrinkles, whereas pigment spot formation is the hallmark of extrinsic skin ageing in East Asians. However, these assumptions are based on a very limited number of studies which did not include different East Asian populations. Objective: We here compare the manifestation of extrinsic skin ageing signs in German, Japanese and Chinese women by specifically elucidating the age and anatomical site dependence of any potential ethnic difference. Methods: In the present study, we assessed skin ageing in N = 902 German, N = 165 Japanese and N = 1260 Chinese women ranging from 30 to 90 years by means of SCINEXA™. Linear regression analysis was used to test for ethnic differences and their age and site dependence adjusted for educational level, sun exposure, smoking and sun protection behaviours. Results: Pigment spots and wrinkles on the face were present among all three ethnic groups and differences were influenced by age and anatomical sites independently of further influencing factors. Pigment spots on the forehead were most pronounced over the whole age range in Chinese and German women and least developed in Japanese. Pigment spots on cheeks were a typical extrinsic skin an ageing sign in the two East Asian populations in all age groups. However, in older German women they reach the same level as observed in the two East Asian populations. In contrast, pigment spots on arms and hands were significantly more pronounced in German women ≥45years of age. Wrinkles were not exclusively a skin an ageing sign of German women, but were also very pronounced in Chinese women on forehead, between the eyebrows and in the crow's feet area. Conclusion: These results corroborate the previous notion that the occurrence of pigments spots and wrinkles is different between Caucasians and East Asians. In addition, this study shows that this difference depends on age and anatomical site and that it also differs between different ethnic groups from East Asia. © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Source

Kaneko N.,Nagoya City University | Vierkoetter A.,IUF Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine | Kraemer U.,IUF Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine | Sugiri D.,IUF Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Experimental Dermatology

The mitochondrial common deletion (CD) mutation is induced by oxidative stress. One main source of oxidative stress is the error-prone process of the respiratory chain located in the mitochondria. Another important source is the exposure to environmental factors, which further induces oxidative stress in the cells. For human skin, the primary damaging environmental factor is ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which is able to induce CD mutations and the characteristic extrinsic skin ageing signs. Traditionally, levels of UV exposure differ between German and Japanese populations, as tanned skin represents beauty and health in Western cultures, whereas photo-protected skin is considered ideal in Asia. We hypothesize that (i) this cultural-related UV exposure pattern might be reflected by CD concentrations in environmentally exposed skin and (ii) CD concentrations in environmentally exposed areas might be associated with the manifestation of extrinsic skin ageing. In this study, we determined the concentration of CD in skin from the neck (environmentally exposed area) and the buttock (environmentally protected area) of 22 German and 46 Japanese women between 30 and 70years of age. We evaluated skin ageing signs by a validated clinical score, and exposure to environmental factors, such as UV exposure and smoking, was assessed using a questionnaire-based interview. Higher levels of CD were detected in neck skin than in buttock skin in both German and Japanese women. CD also increased with age in the neck skin. German women had higher CD concentrations in the neck skin than Japanese women. The CD concentrations in the buttock skin samples were similar in both populations. These findings suggest higher environmental UV exposure resulted in higher levels of CD in the skin of German women compared with Japanese women. However, only in Japanese women were the signs of extrinsic skin ageing associated with higher CD concentrations in the neck skin, in agreement with the hypothesis (ii). In German women, we did not find this latter association, which might be due to reaching a maximum level of CD, beyond which cells undergo negative selection and are lost to the population samples. In conclusion, under some conditions, there seems to be an association between the CD mutation concentration and extrinsic skin ageing, but this may be modified by cellular and tissue processes which affect the sampling rate for CD mutation concentrations and prevent a statistical association with extrinsic skin ageing. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Ando H.,Doshisha University | Ando H.,Kobe Skin Research Institute | Matsui M.S.,The Estee Lauder Companies Inc | Ichihashi M.,Doshisha University | Ichihashi M.,Kobe Skin Research Institute
International Journal of Molecular Sciences

Excess production of melanin or its abnormal distribution, or both, can cause irregular hyperpigmentation of the skin, leading to melasma and age spots. To date, various quasi-drugs that prevent or improve hyperpigmentary disorders have been developed and officially approved by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan. Many of these inhibit the activity of tyrosinase, an enzyme required for melanin synthesis, for example, by competitive or non-competitive inhibition of its catalytic activity, by inhibiting its maturation, or by accelerating its degradation. In this review, we categorize the quasi-drugs developed in Japan to prevent or treat hyperpigmentary disorders, or both, and discuss perspectives for future development. © 2010 by the authors. Source

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