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Rochester J.R.,The Endocrine Disruption Exchange TEDX | Bolden A.L.,The Endocrine Disruption Exchange TEDX
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2015

Background: Increasing concern over bisphenol A (BPA) as an endocrine-disrupting chemical and its possible efects on human health have prompted the removal of BPA from consumer products, often labeled “BPA-free.” Some of the chemical replacements, however, are also bisphenols and may have similar physiological effects in organisms. Bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF) are two such BPA substitutes. objectives: Tis review was carried out to evaluate the physiological effects and endocrine activities of the BPA substitutes BPS and BPF. Further, we compared the hormonal potency of BPS and BPF to that of BPA. Methods: We conducted a systematic review based on the Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) protocol. results: We identified the body of literature to date, consisting of 32 studies (25 in vitro only, and 7 in vivo). The majority of these studies examined the hormonal activities of BPS and BPF and found their potency to be in the same order of magnitude and of similar action as BPA (estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, androgenic, and anti androgenic) in vitro and in vivo. BPS also has potencies similar to that of estradiol in membrane-mediated pathways, which are important for cellular actions such as proliferation, differentiation, and death. BPS and BPF also showed other effects in vitro and in vivo, such as altered organ weights, reproductive end points, and enzyme expression. conclusions: Based on the current literature, BPS and BPF are as hormonally active as BPA, and they have endocrine-disrupting effects. © 2015, Public Health Services, US Dept of Health and Human Services. All Rights Reserved.

Bolden A.L.,The Endocrine Disruption Exchange TEDX | Kwiatkowski C.F.,The Endocrine Disruption Exchange TEDX | Kwiatkowski C.F.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Colborn T.,The Endocrine Disruption Exchange TEDX
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) are retrieved during fossil fuel extraction and used as solvents in consumer and industrial products, as gasoline additives, and as intermediates in the synthesis of organic compounds for many consumer products. Emissions from the combustion of gasoline and diesel fuels are the largest contributors to atmospheric BTEX concentrations. However, levels indoors (where people spend greater than 83% of their time) can be many times greater than outdoors. In this review we identified epidemiological studies assessing the noncancer health impacts of ambient level BTEX exposure (i.e., nonoccupational) and discussed how the health conditions may be hormonally mediated. Health effects significantly associated with ambient level exposure included sperm abnormalities, reduced fetal growth, cardiovascular disease, respiratory dysfunction, asthma, sensitization to common antigens, and more. Several hormones including estrogens, androgens, glucocorticoids, insulin, and serotonin may be involved in these health outcomes. This analysis suggests that all four chemicals may have endocrine disrupting properties at exposure levels below reference concentrations (i.e., safe levels) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. These data should be considered when evaluating the use of BTEX in consumer and industrial products and indicates a need to change how chemicals present at low concentrations are assessed and regulated. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

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