Anderson J.A.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Ping L.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Dibben O.,The Edward Jenner Institute for Vaccine Research |
Jabara C.B.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
And 10 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2010
HIV-1 is present in anatomical compartments and bodily fluids. Most transmissions occur through sexual acts, making virus in semen the proximal source in male donors. We find three distinct relationships in comparing viral RNA populations between blood and semen in men with chronic HIV-1 infection, and we propose that the viral populations in semen arise by multiple mechanisms including: direct import of virus, oligoclonal amplification within the seminal tract, or compartmentalization. In addition, we find significant enrichment of six out of nineteen cytokines and chemokines in semen of both HIV-infected and uninfected men, and another seven further enriched in infected individuals. The enrichment of cytokines involved in innate immunity in the seminal tract, complemented with chemokines in infected men, creates an environment conducive to T cell activation and viral replication. These studies define different relationships between virus in blood and semen that can significantly alter the composition of the viral population at the source that is most proximal to the transmitted virus. © 2010 Anderson et al.
Baaten B.J.G.,The Edward Jenner Institute for Vaccine Research |
Clarke B.,The Edward Jenner Institute for Vaccine Research |
Strong P.,University of Oxford |
Hou S.,The Edward Jenner Institute for Vaccine Research
Vaccine | Year: 2010
Influenza virus infection remains a major health concern due to morbidity and mortality associated with epidemics and occasional pandemics. The absence of acquired immunity to antigenically distinct, emerging virus strains stresses the need for a generic drug that protects independent of vaccination. Here, we demonstrate that prophylactic administration of chitin microparticles (CMP) via the intranasal route significantly reduced lung viral titres and clinical signs. Pre-treatment boosted the innate immune response to subsequent infection by recruiting innate cells, such as neutrophils, and increasing inflammatory cytokines. Although an increase in virus-specific T cells was observed, the memory phase was diminished. Our data demonstrate that in the absence of prior exposure to influenza virus, CMP reduce clinical signs by boosting innate immunity. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.