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Grati N.,University of Sfax | Ben-Hamadou A.,The Driving Center | Hammami M.,University of Sfax
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

This paper presents a novel approach for face recognition using low cost RGB-D cameras under challenging conditions. In particular, the proposed approach is based on salient points to extract local patches independently to the face pose. The classification is performed using a scalable sparse representation classification by an adaptive and dynamic dictionaries selection. The experimental results proved that the proposed algorithm achieves significant accuracy on three different RGBD databases and competes with known approaches in the literature. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.


Maxwell H.G.,St Josephs Care Group | Dubois S.,St Josephs Care Group | Weaver B.,Lakehead University | Bedard M.,The Driving Center
Canadian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2010

Objectives: To examine the relationship between the combination of alcohol and benzodiazepines and the risk of committing an unsafe driver action. Methods: We used data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (1993-2006) on drivers aged 20 or older who were tested for both alcohol and drugs. Using a case-control design, we compared drivers who had at least one unsafe driver action (UDA; e.g., weaving) recorded in relation to the crash (cases) to drivers who did not (controls). Results: Drivers who tested positive for intermediate- and long-acting benzodiazepines in combination with alcohol had significantly greater odds of a UDA compared to those under the influence of alcohol alone, up to blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 0.08 and 0.05 g/100 ml, respectively. The odds of a UDA with short-acting benzodiazepines combined with alcohol were no different than for alcohol alone. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the combination of alcohol and benzodiazepines can have detrimental effects on driving beyond those of alcohol alone. By describing these combined effects in terms of BAC equivalencies, this study also allows for the extrapolation of simple, concrete concepts that communicate risk to the average benzodiazepine user. © Canadian Public Health Association, 2010. All rights reserved.


Jehkonen M.,University of Tampere | Saunamaki T.,University of Tampere | Alzamora A.-K.,University of Tampere | Laihosalo M.,University of Tampere | Kuikka P.,The Driving Center
Neurocase | Year: 2012

Driving ability of three patients having a right hemisphere infarct and residual visual inattention was examined. The neuropsychological examination included the Peripheral Perception Test and the Signal Detection Test from the Vienna Test System, and the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT). Driving ability was assessed with an on-road evaluation. The patients had no neglect based on the BIT and had normal visual fields, but they showed slightly poorer visual search on the left side. All patients passed the official on-road driving test and were considered capable of driving. This study raises the question if acute neglect can recover to a degree in which driving may be possible. © 2012 Copyright 2012 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business.


Domeyer J.E.,Central Michigan University | Cassavaugh N.D.,Central Michigan University | Cassavaugh N.D.,The Driving Center | Backs R.W.,Central Michigan University | Backs R.W.,The Driving Center
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2013

The technical advancement of driving simulators has decreased their cost and increased both their accuracy and fidelity. This makes them a useful tool for examining driving behavior in risky or unique situations. With the approaching increase of older licensed drivers due to aging of the baby boomers, driving simulators will be important for conducting driving research and evaluations for older adults. With these simulator technologies, some people may experience significant effects of a unique form of motion sickness, known as simulator sickness. These effects may be more pronounced in older adults. The present study examined the feasibility of an intervention to attenuate symptoms of simulator sickness in drivers participating in a study of a driving evaluation protocol. Prior to beginning the experiment, the experimental groups did not differ in subjective simulator sickness scores as indicated by Revised Simulator Sickness Questionnaire scores (all p > 0.5). Participants who experienced a two-day delay between an initial acclimation to the driving simulator and the driving session experienced fewer simulator sickness symptoms as indicated by RSSQ total severity scores than participants who did not receive a two-day delay (F(1,88) = 4.54, p =.036, partial η2 =.049). These findings have implications for improving client well-being and potentially increasing acceptance of driving simulation for driving evaluations and for driving safety research. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Sun C.,Dalian University of Technology | Li J.H.,Dalian University of Technology | Jin L.,The Driving Center
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

One of the important causes of traffic accidents is driver fatigue. In this paper, a new real-time non-intrusive method to detect driver fatigue is proposed. Firstly, face region is detected by AdaBoost algorithm because of its robustness. Then a region of interest of the eye is defined based on face geometry. In this region, eye pupil is precisely located by radial symmetry transform. With principal component analysis(PCA), three eigen spaces are trained to recognize eye states. Open, closed eye samples and other non-eye samples in the face region are used to get these eigen spaces. At last, PERCLOS and consecutive eye closure time are adopted to detect driver fatigue. Experiments with thirty two participants in realistic driving condition show the reliability and the robustness of our system. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Ruscio D.,The Driving Center | Ciceri M.R.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Ciceri M.R.,University of Milan | Biassoni F.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2015

Brake Reaction Time (BRT) is an important parameter for road safety. Previous research has shown that drivers' expectations can impact RT when facing hazardous situations, but driving with advanced driver assistance systems, can change the way BRT are considered. The interaction with a collision warning system can help faster more efficient responses, but at the same time can require a monitoring task and evaluation process that may lead to automation complacency. The aims of the present study are to test in a real-life setting whether automation compliancy can be generated by a collision warning system and what component of expectancy can impact the different tasks involved in an assisted BRT process. More specifically four component of expectancy were investigated: presence/absence of anticipatory information, previous direct experience, reliability of the device, and predictability of the hazard determined by repeated use of the warning system. Results supply indication on perception time and mental elaboration of the collision warning system alerts. In particular reliable warning quickened the decision making process, misleading warnings generated automation complacency slowing visual search for hazard detection, lack of directed experienced slowed the overall response while unexpected failure of the device lead to inattentional blindness and potential pseudo-accidents with surprise obstacle intrusion. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.


PubMed | Nippon Medical School and The Driving Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of emergency medicine | Year: 2016

Advanced automatic collision notification (AACN) is a system for predicting occupant injury from collision information. If the helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) physician can be alerted by AACN, it may be possible to reduce the time to patient contact.The purpose of this study was to validate the feasibility of early HEMS dispatch via AACN.A full-scale validation study was conducted. A car equipped with AACN was made to collide with a wall. Immediately after the collision, the HEMS was alerted directly by the operation center, which received the information from AACN. Elapsed times were recorded and compared with those inferred from the normal, real-world HEMS emergency request process.AACN information was sent to the operation center only 7 s after the collision; the HEMS was dispatched after 3 min. The helicopter landed at the temporary helipad 18 min later. Finally, medical intervention was started 21 min after the collision. Without AACN, it was estimated that the HEMS would be requested 14 min after the collision by fire department personnel. The start of treatment was estimated to be at 32 min, which was 11 min later than that associated with the use of AACN.The dispatch of the HEMS using the AACN can shorten the start time of treatment for patients in motor vehicle collisions. This study demonstrated that it is feasible to automatically alert and activate the HEMS via AACN.


Puthon A.-S.,MINES ParisTech | Nashashibi F.,MINES ParisTech | Bradai B.,The Driving Center
IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC | Year: 2010

Speed limit determination is a complex task that may be solved by fusing data from GIS (Geographical Information System) and camera sensor. Among the existing data fusion models the Dempster-Shafer Belief Theory is found to be the most appropriate in this application. A confidence measure weights each source output, namely speed limit present on road sign and driving situation. Using the discounting scheme of Dempster-Shafer, we propose a new way of computing the navigation confidence measure by taking into account the reliability of the GIS. Preliminary tests showed that our method achieves promising results and solves conflicts between vision-and navigation-based system. ©2010 IEEE.


Puthon A.-S.,MINES ParisTech | Nashashibi F.,MINES ParisTech | Bradai B.,The Driving Center
IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC | Year: 2011

Determining the speed limit on road is a complex task based on the Highway Code and the detection of temporary speed limits. In our system, these two aspects are managed by a GIS (Geographical Information System) and a camera respectively. The vision-based system aims at detecting the roadsigns as well as the subsigns and the lane markings to filter those applicable. The two sources of information are finally fused by using the Belief Theory to select the correct speed limit. The performance of a navigation-based system is increased by 19%. © 2011 IEEE.


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