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Luo H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Luo H.,Newhope Liuhe Co. | Zhou Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hu X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Cell Cycle | Year: 2015

PPARγ and Wnt signaling are central positive and negative regulators of adipogenesis, respectively. Here we identified that, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) could effectively induce the transdifferentiation of myoblasts into adipocytes through modulation of both PPARγ expression and Wnt signaling. During the early stage of transdifferentiation, EPA activates PPARγ and PPARγ1, which in turn targets β-catenin to degradation and down-regulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling, such that the myogenic fate of myoblasts could be switched to adipogenesis. In addition, EPA up-regulates the expression of PPARγ1 by activating RXRα, then PPARγ1 binds to the functional peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE) in the promoter of adipocyte-specific PPARγ2 to continuously activate the expression of PPARγ2 throughout the transdifferentiation process. Our data indicated that EPA acts as a dual-function stimulator of adipogenesis that both inhibits Wnt signaling and induces PPARγ2 expression to facilitate the transdifferentiation program, and the transcriptional activation of PPARγ2 by PPARγ1 is not only the key factor for the transdifferentiation of myoblasts to adipocytes, but also the crucial evidence for successful transdifferentiation. The present findings provided insight for the first time as to how EPA induces the transdifferentiation of myoblasts to adipocytes, but also provide new clues for strategies to prevent and treat some metabolic diseases. © 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

PubMed | Huazhong Agricultural University, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Science and The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

Stress response is tightly linked to meat quality. The current understanding of the intrinsic mechanism of meat deterioration under stress is limited. Here, male piglets were randomly assigned to cortisol and control groups. Our results showed that when serum cortisol level was significantly increased, the meat color at 1h postmortem, muscle bundle ratio, apoptosis rate, and gene expression levels of calcium channel and cell apoptosis including SERCA1, IP3R1, BAX, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3, were notably increased. However, the value of drip loss at 24h postmortem and serum CK were significantly decreased. Additionally, a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in GC regulation mechanism were screened out using transcriptome sequencing technology. A total of 223 DEGs were found, including 80 up-regulated genes and 143 down-regulated genes. A total of 204 genes were enriched in GO terms, and 140 genes annotated into in KEGG database. Numerous genes were primarily involved in defense, inflammatory and wound responses. This study not only identifies important genes and signalling pathways that may affect the meat quality but also offers a reference for breeding and feeding management to provide consumers with better quality pork products.

Tan C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wei H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhao X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Xu C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Nutrients | Year: 2016

To understand whether soluble fiber (SF) with high water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling capacity (SC) and fermentability reduces food intake and whether it does so by promoting satiety or satiation or both, we investigated the effects of different SFs with these properties on the food intake in rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch (PWMS) plus guar gum (PG), and PWMS starch plus xanthan gum (PX) for three weeks, with the measured values of SF, WBC, and SC in the four diets following the order of PG > KF > PX > control. Food intake, body weight, meal pattern, behavioral satiety sequence, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in cecal content were evaluated. KF and PG groups reduced the food intake, mainly due to the decreased feeding behavior and increased satiety, as indicated by decreased meal numbers and increased inter-meal intervals. Additionally, KF and PG groups increased concentrations of acetate acid, propionate acid, and SCFAs in the cecal contents. Our results indicate that SF with high WBC, SC, and fermentability reduces food intake—probably by promoting a feeling of satiety in rats to decrease their feeding behavior. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Nie Y.-F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Nie Y.-F.,The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production | Hu J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hu J.,The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Zhejiang University: Science B | Year: 2015

Bile acid (BA) is de novo synthesized exclusively in the liver and has direct or indirect antimicrobial effects. On the other hand, the composition and size of the BA pool can be altered by intestinal microbiota via the biotransformation of primary BAs to secondary BAs, and subsequently regulate the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4). The BA-activated FXR plays important roles in BA synthesis and metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism, and even hepatic autophagy. BAs can also play a role in the interplays among intestinal microbes. In this review, we mainly discuss the interactions between BAs and intestinal microbiota and their roles in regulating host metabolism, and probably the autophagic signaling pathway. © 2015, Zhejiang University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Liu R.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu R.,The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production | Wang M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang M.,The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production | And 8 more authors.
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2015

The development of the microscopically folded structure of the diffuse epitheliochorial placenta in pigs is important because it expands the surface area for maternal-fetal exchange, resulting in an increase in placental efficiency. To better understand the regulatory mechanisms involved in this process, we characterized miRNA expression profiles in porcine placentas during the initiation and establishment of placental fold development. A total of 42 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed, and their putative target genes were predicted using four target prediction programs. Following a comparative analysis with published gene expression pattern data obtained from porcine placentas in the corresponding stages of placental fold development, only those genes that were negatively correlated with miRNA expression were retained for further function and pathway enrichment analysis. The results showed that the up-regulated miRNAs were associated mainly with extracellular matrix remodeling and tissue morphogenesis, while the down-regulated miRNAs were related to cell proliferation and signal transduction. Furthermore, we provide evidence that miR-130b may facilitate the expression of HPSE , which has been reported to be a regulator of the folding of the pig placenta, by suppressing the expression of PPARG . In addition, we also reveal that the miRNA-target pairs expressed in the pig placenta may trigger the degradation of the stromal matrix and basement membrane (miR-29a- COL1A2 , COL3A1 , and LAMC1) and regulate trophoblast epithelial cell adherens junctions (the miR-200 family and miR-205- ZEB2 - CDH1 ) and proliferation (miR-17-92 cluster- HBP1 and ULK1 ). Taken together, these results indicate that miRNAs and related pathways may have potential roles in porcine placental fold development. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

Zou Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Xiang Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wei H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2016

This study compared the effects of dietary oregano essential oil (OEO), quercetin or vitamin E (vit E), on the live body weight loss, carcass characteristics, meat quality and antioxidant status of pigs after transportation. A total of 340 finishing pigs (Large White×Landrace) with an initial body weight of 74 kg (±4.0 kg) were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups (five replicate pens per treatment, 17 pigs per pen). Pigs consumed the basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 200 mg vit E/kg (positive control), 25 mg OEO/kg or 25 mg quercetin/kg for 4 weeks. After this period, 144 pigs (36 pigs per treatment) were transported for 5 h before slaughter. Compared with the control group, the OEO or quercetin groups had a higher average daily gain (P<0.05), and the OEO group also had a lower feed intake/gain (P<0.05). The live body weight loss was less in the OEO group after 5 h transportation (P<0.05) than in the control group. The hot carcass weight and dressing percentage were higher in the OEO group after 5 h of transportation (P<0.05) than in the control group. After slaughter, the pH value at 45-min postmortem and Opto-star value (meat color) at 24-h postmortem increased in the vit E, OEO or quercetin groups (P<0.05) compared with the control group. The vit E or quercetin groups also exhibited higher 24-h postmortem pH values (P<0.05) than the control group. The Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle of pigs from the OEO or quercetin groups produced lower 24-h drip loss values (P<0.05) than that of pigs from the control group. Compared with the control group, the OEO or quercetin groups had reduced levels of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and ROS (reactive oxygen species) in serum, muscle and liver (P<0.05), while the vit E group had reduced levels in serum only (P<0.05). The OEO or quercetin groups also had increased levels of Gpx (glutathione peroxidase) and T-SOD (total superoxide dismutase) activity in serum and liver compared with the control group (P<0.05). Conversely, there were no differences between the vit E and control groups in Gpx or T-SOD activities. In conclusion, supplementation with dietary OEO or quercetin may be superior to supplementation with dietary vit E in alleviating the negative effects of transportation on pigs by improving the pigs’ antioxidant status. © 2016

Hu J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hu J.,The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production | Nie Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Nie Y.,The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production | And 2 more authors.
Current Protein and Peptide Science | Year: 2015

The mammalian intestine harbors a mass of microorganisms that is essential to maintain intestinal epithelium homeostasis and health. However, some microbes can damage the epithelial mucosal barrier to utilize nutrients for their survival and growth. Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process that targets cytoplasmic damaged organelles and some cellular molecules to lysosome for degradation. Accumulating studies have demonstrated that autophagy plays an important role in the innate immune system in response to different gut pathogens. For instance, autophagy can be induced to mediate the process of pathogenic infection during pathogens invasion. In this review, we mainly discuss the steps of autophagy pathway mediated by microbes and the role of autophagy in the gut pathogens clearance and evasion. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.

Huang C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Huang C.,The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production | Geng J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Geng J.,The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production | And 2 more authors.
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2016

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also referred to as multipotent stromal cells, have been isolated from various adult tissue sources because of their capabilities of differentiating into multiple cell lineages including osteoblasts, thus providing a novel approach for treating bone diseases and metabolic disorders. Despite extensive potential in cell therapy and widespread interest in clinical applications of MSCs, the molecular mechanisms with regard to the regulation of their therapeutic properties and osteoblast differentiation remain to be fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a novel class of endogenous small noncoding RNAs, regulate gene expressions by translational repression or degradation of their targets. Recently, emerging evidence has shown that miRNAs are closely involved in controlling the key steps of osteoblast differentiation in MSCs. This review focuses on miRNAs and their roles in regulating osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Tan C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wei H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ao J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Long G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2016

Although dietary fibers contribute to health and physiology primarily via the fermentative actions of the gut microbiota of the hosts, few studies have focused on how these interactions influence the metabolic status of sows. Here, the effects of inclusion of konjac flour (KF) in a gestation diet on oxidative stress status, insulin sensitivity, and gut microbiota were investigated to elucidate the correlation between the microbiota and metabolic changes in sows. Sows were assigned to either control or 2.2% KF dietary treatment during gestation. The gut microbiota population in sows during gestation and lactation was assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The oxidative stress parameters, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) values, and fatty acids in the blood of sows were also assessed. Compared to the control diet group, KF significantly reduced the serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) but increased the serum concentrations of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in sows on day 1 in lactation. Additionally, sows in the KF group had a lower HOMA insulin resistance value but a higher HOMA insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) value. KF induced changes in the gut microbial composition at the phylum and genus levels. The increased relative abundances of Akkermansia and Roseburia in the KF group were positively correlated with the HOMA-IS. Overall, dietary KF alleviated oxidative stress and improved insulin sensitivity of sows, and the changes in the gut microbiota in response to KF may have been correlated with the host metabolism response.

PubMed | Huazhong Agricultural University and The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Gene | Year: 2016

Since October 2010, porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) caused by variant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has led great economic losses to the global pig industry, especially in China. To study the genetic characteristics of PEDV strains in Chinese mainland, a total of 603 clinical samples from nine provinces/districts of Chinese mainland from January 2014 to December 2015 were collected for RT-PCR detection and 1-1323bp of S gene of 91 isolates and ORF3 gene of 46 isolates were sequenced. The results showed that the variant PEDV were the dominant pathogens of viral diarrhea diseases in these areas. Six novel variant PEDV strains (FJAX1, FJAX2, HeNPDS1, HeNPDS2, HeNPY3, and HeNPY4) with two amino acids (aa) deletion at the 56-57 aa of S protein were identified. A total of 405 Chinese PEDV strains were subjected to phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis. The results revealed that the subgroup Va in variant PEDV group were the dominant subgroup and the spread trend of variant PEDV strains seemed to be from the southeast coastal districts to other coastal districts and interior districts. The N-terminal of S gene (1-750bp), to some extent, could represent S1 or full length S gene for phylogenetic, similarity, antigen index, hydrophilicity plot, and differentiation analyses. The 404-472bp of S gene contained the three genetic markers, i.e., TAA insertion at 404-405bp, ACAGGT deletion at 430-435bp, and ATA deletion at 455-457bp can be used to differentiate the classical and variant virulent parental/attenuated PEDV strains and help us to learn the infectious and genetic characteristics of PEDV strains more convenient and cheaper. This study has important implication for understanding the infectious, genetic, and evolutionary aspects of PEDV strains in Chinese mainland.

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