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The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, commonly referred to simply as Cooper Union, is a privately funded college located in Cooper Square in the East Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. Inspired in 1830 when Peter Cooper learned about the government-supported École Polytechnique in France, Cooper Union was established in 1859. The school was built on a radical new model of American higher education based on founder Peter Cooper's fundamental belief that an education "equal to the best technology schools established" should be accessible to those who qualify, independent of their race, religion, sex, wealth or social status, and should be "open and free to all". The Cooper Union previously granted each admitted student a full-tuition scholarship; as of April 23, 2013, due to financial concerns, that policy has been eliminated beginning with the class entering in the Fall of 2014, although every incoming student receives at the very least a fifty-percent merit scholarship.The college is divided into three schools: the Irwin S. Chanin School of Architecture, the School of Art, and the Albert Nerken School of Engineering. It offers undergraduate and master's degree programs exclusively in the fields of architecture, fine arts, and engineering. It is a member of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology and the Association of Independent Colleges of Art and Design . Cooper is considered to be one of the most prestigious colleges in the United States, with all three of its member schools consistently ranked among the highest in the country. Dr. Jamshed Bharucha has succeeded George Campbell Jr. as the college's twelfth president.Cooper Union was one of very few American institutions of higher learning to offer a full-tuition scholarship – valued at approximately $150,000 as of 2012 – to every admitted student. Cooper Union has historically been one of the most selective colleges in the United States, with an acceptance rate typically below 10%. Both the art and architecture schools have acceptance rates below 5%. Cooper Union experienced a 20% increase in applications for the 2008–2009 academic year, further lowering the acceptance rate. The school also experienced a 70% increase in early decision applications for the 2009–2010 academic year. As a result of its record low acceptance ratio for the fall-2010 incoming class, Cooper Union was named by Newsweek as the "#1 Most Desirable Small School" and "#7 Most Desirable School" overall. Wikipedia.

Davis S.A.,The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art | Davis B.L.,Austen BioInnovation Institute
Current Sports Medicine Reports | Year: 2012

A variety of physiological changes are experienced by astronauts during both short- and long-duration space missions. These include space motion sickness, spatial disorientation, orthostatic hypotension, muscle atrophy, bone demineralization, increased cancer risk, and a compromised immune system. This review focuses on countermeasures used to moderate these changes, particularly exercise devices that have been used by National Aeronautics and Space Administration astronauts over the past six decades as countermeasures to muscle atrophy and bone loss. The use of these devices clearly has shown that a microgravity environment places unusual demands on both the equipment and the human users. While it is of paramount importance to overcome microgravityinduced musculoskeletal deconditioning, it also is imperative that the exercise system (i) is small and lightweight, (ii) does not require an external power source, (iii) produces 1g-like benefits to both bones and muscles, (iv) requires relatively short durations of exercise, and (v) does not affect the surrounding structure or environment negatively through noise and/or induced vibrations. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

Khazanov N.A.,University of Michigan | Damm-Ganamet K.L.,University of Michigan | Quang D.X.,The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art | Carlson H.A.,University of Michigan
Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics | Year: 2012

An appropriate structural superposition identifies similarities and differences between homologous proteins that are not evident from sequence alignments alone. We have coupled our Gaussian-weighted RMSD (wRMSD) tool with a sequence aligner and seed extension (SE) algorithm to create a robust technique for overlaying structures and aligning sequences of homologous proteins (HwRMSD). HwRMSD overcomes errors in the initial sequence alignment that would normally propagate into a standard RMSD overlay. SE can generate a corrected sequence alignment from the improved structural superposition obtained by wRMSD. HwRMSD's robust performance and its superiority over standard RMSD are demonstrated over a range of homologous proteins. Its better overlay results in corrected sequence alignments with good agreement to HOMSTRAD. Finally, HwRMSD is compared to established structural alignment methods: FATCAT, secondary-structure matching, combinatorial extension, and Dalilite. Most methods are comparable at placing residue pairs within 2 Å, but HwRMSD places many more residue pairs within 1 Å, providing a clear advantage. Such high accuracy is essential in drug design, where small distances can have a large impact on computational predictions. This level of accuracy is also needed to correct sequence alignments in an automated fashion, especially for omics-scale analysis. HwRMSD can align homologs with low-sequence identity and large conformational differences, cases where both sequence-based and structural-based methods may fail. The HwRMSD pipeline overcomes the dependency of structural overlays on initial sequence pairing and removes the need to determine the best sequence-alignment method, substitution matrix, and gap parameters for each unique pair of homologs. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Barrasso D.,Rutgers University | Walia S.,The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art | Ramachandran R.,Rutgers University
Powder Technology | Year: 2013

In the recent few years, continuous processing has been considered as a promising process alternative to batch processing in pharmaceutical manufacturing. Via a novel population balance model framework, a multi-dimensional multi-component model for a continuous granulation process was developed, describing time evolutions of distributions with respect to granule size, liquid distribution and granule composition. A parametric study was performed to analyze the effects of various process and design parameters, including granulator size and configuration, liquid spray rate and particle velocity, on evolutions and distributions of key granule properties. Simulation results capture experimentally observed sensitivities and trends thus demonstrating the use of a model-based framework for granulation process design, control and optimization to enable QbD in drug product development. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Arens R.,Yeshiva University | Sin S.,Yeshiva University | Nandalike K.,Yeshiva University | Rieder J.,Yeshiva University | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2011

Rationale: Mechanisms leading to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in obese children are not well understood. Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine anatomical risk factors associated with OSAS in obese children as compared with obese control subjects without OSAS. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine the size of upper airway structure, and body fat composition. Paired analysis was used to compare between groups. Mixed effects regression models and conditional multiple logistic regression models were used to determine whether body mass index (BMI) Z-score was an effect modifier of each anatomic characteristic as it relates to OSAS. Measurements and Main Results: We studied 22 obese subjects with OSAS (12.5 ± 2.8 yr; BMI Z-score, 2.4 ± 0.4) and 22 obese control subjects (12.3 ± 2.9 yr; BMI Z-score, 2.3 ± 0.3). As compared with control subjects, subjects with OSAS had a smaller oropharynx (P< 0.05) and larger adenoid (P < 0.01), tonsils (P< 0.05), and retropharyngeal nodes (P<0.05). The size of lymphoid tissues correlated with severity of OSAS whereas BMI Z-score did not have a modifier effect on these tissues. Subjects with OSAS demonstrated increased size of parapharyngeal fat pads (P<0.05) and abdominal visceral fat (P<0.05). The size of these tissues did not correlate with severity of OSASandBMIZ-score did not have a modifier effecton these tissues. Conclusions: Upper airway lymphoid hypertrophy is significant in obese children with OSAS. The lack of correlation of lymphoid tissue size with obesity suggests that this hypertrophy is caused by other mechanisms. Although the parapharyngeal fat pads and abdominal visceral fat are larger in obese children with OSAS we could not find a direct association with severity of OSAS or with obesity.

Luchtenburg D.M.,The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art | Brunton S.L.,University of Washington | Rowley C.W.,Princeton University
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2014

We present an efficient and accurate method for long-time uncertainty propagation in dynamical systems. Uncertain initial conditions and parameters are both addressed. The method approximates the intermediate short-time flow maps by spectral polynomial bases, as in the generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) method, and uses flow map composition to construct the long-time flow map. In contrast to the gPC method, this approach has spectral error convergence for both short and long integration times.The short-time flow map is characterized by small stretching and folding of the associated trajectories and hence can be well represented by a relatively low-degree basis. The composition of these low-degree polynomial bases then accurately describes the uncertainty behavior for long integration times. The key to the method is that the degree of the resulting polynomial approximation increases exponentially in the number of time intervals, while the number of polynomial coefficients either remains constant (for an autonomous system) or increases linearly in the number of time intervals (for a non-autonomous system). The findings are illustrated on several numerical examples including a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) with an uncertain initial condition, a linear ODE with an uncertain model parameter, and a two-dimensional, non-autonomous double gyre flow. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

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