Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Wang W.,Lanzhou University | Wang W.,The Conservation Research Institute of Dunhuang Academy | Ma X.,Lanzhou University | Ma Y.,Lanzhou University | And 4 more authors.
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2011

In this study, we analyzed air samples collected from several sites within the Mogao Grottoes, Dunhuang, China. The samples were collected each month from September 2008 to August 2009 from an open cave (OC), a semi-open cave (SC), a closed cave (CC), and the entrance (EN) of the Mogao Grottoes. Sampling was carried out using a six-stage Andersen FA-I sampler; then samples were cultured and fungal isolates were identified by partial sequencing of their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Eleven different fungal genera were found, and the most prevalent was Cladosporium, followed by Fusarium, Penicillium, Alternaria, and Aspergillus. The fungal community composition varied among the four sites. Fungal community structure was significantly related to site (r = -0.293, p = 0.039) and to time of year (r = -0.523, p = 0.000). The concentrations and abundance of airborne fungi varied greatly throughout the year at the four sampling sites. Meteorological parameters (e.g., temperature, relative humidity) and the number of visitors also influenced both abundance and community structure of airborne fungi in the Mogao Grottoes. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Wang W.,Lanzhou University | Wang W.,The Conservation Research Institute of Dunhuang Academy | Ma X.,Lanzhou University | Ma Y.,Lanzhou University | And 5 more authors.
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2010

Fungal spores are ubiquitous and can be found in both outdoor and indoor air samples, we investigated the temporal and spatial distributions, compositions, and determinants of ambient airborne fungi in Mogao Grottoes of Dunhuang, China. Culturable fungi in three categories of caves, Open Cave (OC) to visitors, Semi-open Cave (SC), and Closed Cave (CC) and an outdoor area (OD) in Mogao Grottoes monthly from September 2008 to August 2009, using a six-stage Anderson FA-1 sampler. The grand mean of total culturable fungi was 187.45 ± 37.76 colony-forming units (CFU)/m3 for all sites considered, and the number was 110.52 ± 17.40 CFU/m3, 137.81 ± 26.67 CFU/m3, 245.39 ± 37.20 CFU/m3, 240.87 ± 54.91 CFU/m3 in OC, SC, CC, OD. The most prevalent fungi were Cladosporium spp., non-sporing fungi, Penicillium spp., Alternaria spp. and Aspergillus spp. at all four sampling sites. Airborne fungal numbers and their diversity were generally higher in CC and OD than in OC and SC. Most fungal genus had significant seasonal variations, higher levels were observed in summer and autumn. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the levels of ambient fungi were correlated positively with temperature and visitor numbers, but negatively with relative humidity and rainfall. The results suggested that the visitors have an obvious influence on concentrations and compositions of ambient fungi in Mogao Grottoes providing information to be considered in conservation and management. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Wang W.,Lanzhou University | Wang W.,The Conservation Research Institute of Dunhuang Academy | Ma Y.,Lanzhou University | Ma X.,Lanzhou University | And 4 more authors.
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2010

Airborne bacteria are important biological components of bioaerosol and play an important role in the conservation of cultural heritage. High concentration of bacteria in the atmosphere can result in biological air pollution and potentially diseases. In this study, a systematical survey of culturable airborne bacteria was carried out in Mogao Grottoes of Dunhuang, China at four sites (one cave is open to visitors, another is semi-closed, the third one is closed to visitors, and the fourth site is the entrance gate). Airborne bacteria were collected using a six-stage culturable FA-1 sampler monthly from September 2008 to August 2009. The populations of culturable bacteria were in a range from 1.01 × 102 colony forming units (CFU/m3) to 3.8 × 103 CFU/m3. The mean was 1.30 × 103 ± 145 CFU/m3, 1.1 × 103 ± 279 CFU/m3, 4.4 × 102 ± 67 CFU/m3 and 4.4 × 102 ± 77 CFU/m3 in the Closed Cave, Open Cave, Semi-closed Cave and the Entrance, respectively. The particle size of airborne bacteria were mainly distributed in stage 4 of sampling with diameters approximately 2.1-3.3 μm. The correlation was found between airborne bacterial concentrations and environmental temperature, relative humidity, as well as tourists number. The results suggested that the number of visitors has an obvious influence on both the concentrations and the compositions of ambient bacteria in Mogao Grottoes. © 2010. Source

Discover hidden collaborations