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Rosell R.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Rosell R.,University of Barcelona | Karachaliou N.,University of Barcelona | Morales-Espinosa D.,Hospital Medica Sur | And 9 more authors.
Translational Lung Cancer Research

It is widely acknowledged that there is a need for molecular profiling in non-small-cell lung cancer. For example, treatment based on EGFR mutation status has attained successful results. However, in spite of excellent initial response to oral EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), progression-free survival is still limited. Current research has focused mostly on acquired resistance mechanisms, such as overexpression of AXL and loss of the Mediator MED12. In this review, in contrast, we discuss adaptive, rather than acquired, resistance. Adaptive resistance can occur almost immediately after starting targeted therapy through a rapid rewiring of cancer cell signaling. By losing ERK negative feedback on receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) expression, cancer cells are exposed to the stimuli of several ligands, and the ensuing activation of several RTKs reprograms all the canonical signaling pathways. The overexpression of several RTKs was observed in breast cancer cell lines treated with a MEK inhibitor and in BRAFV600E melanoma cell lines treated with BRAF inhibitors. This rebound effect of overexpression of several RTKs, including ERBB3, also occurs in lung cancers driven by Kras or EGFR mutations when treated with MEK, PI3K or dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors. Synthetic lethality can be effectively induced by co-targeting these overexpressed RTKs. We speculate that in patients with EGFR mutations, adaptive resistance occurs in a significant proportion of patients. Rebiopsies performed hours after starting treatment with EGFR TKIs can identify which RTKs are overexpressed after treatment. Efficient co-targeting of these RTKs can induce synthetic lethality and help overcome the limited effect of EGFR TKI monotherapy. © Translational lung cancer research. All rights reserved. Source

Tang Z.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Araysi L.M.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Fathallah-Shaykh H.M.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Fathallah-Shaykh H.M.,Comprehensive NeuroScience | Fathallah-Shaykh H.M.,The Comprehensive Cancer Center

Malignant gliomas remain associated with poor prognosis and high morbidity because of their ability to invade the brain; furthermore, human gliomas exhibit a phenotype of accelerated brain invasion in response to anti-angiogenic drugs. Here, we study 8 human glioblastoma cell lines; U251, U87, D54 and LN229 show accelerated motility in low ambient oxygen. Src inhibition by Dasatinib abrogates this phenotype. Molecular discovery and validation studies evaluate 46 molecules related to motility or the src pathway in U251 cells. Demanding that the molecular changes induced by low ambient oxygen are reversed by Dasatinib in U251 cells, identifies neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (NWASP), Focal adhesion Kinase (FAK), β-Catenin, and Cofilin. However, only Src-mediated NWASP phosphorylation distinguishes the four cell lines that exhibit enhanced motility in low ambient oxygen. Downregulating c-Src or NWASP by RNA interference abrogates the low-oxygen-induced enhancement in motility by in vitro assays and in organotypic brain slice cultures. The findings support the idea that c-Src and NWASP play key roles in mediating the molecular pathogenesis of low oxygen-induced accelerated brain invasion by gliomas. © 2013 Tang et al. Source

Chaffee B.R.,Miami University Ohio | Hoang T.V.,Miami University Ohio | Leonard M.R.,Miami University Ohio | Bruney D.G.,Miami University Ohio | And 5 more authors.
Developmental Biology

Lens epithelial cells express many receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that stimulate PI3K-AKT and RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK intracellular signaling pathways. These pathways ultimately activate the phosphorylation of key cellular transcription factors and other proteins that control proliferation, survival, metabolism, and differentiation in virtually all cells. Among RTKs in the lens, only stimulation of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) elicits a lens epithelial cell to fiber cell differentiation response in mammals. Moreover, although the lens expresses three different Fgfr genes, the isolated removal of Fgfr2 at the lens placode stage inhibits both lens cell survival and fiber cell differentiation. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), commonly known as a tumor suppressor, inhibits ERK and AKT activation and initiates both apoptotic pathways, and cell cycle arrest. Here, we show that the combined deletion of Fgfr2 and Pten rescues the cell death phenotype associated with Fgfr2 loss alone. Additionally, Pten removal increased AKT and ERK activation, above the levels of controls, in the presence or absence of Fgfr2. However, isolated deletion of Pten failed to stimulate ectopic fiber cell differentiation, and the combined deletion of Pten and Fgfr2 failed to restore differentiation-specific Aquaporin0 and DnaseIIβ expression in the lens fiber cells. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

Virk-Baker M.K.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Barnes S.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Barnes S.,The Comprehensive Cancer Center | Krontiras H.,The Comprehensive Cancer Center | And 3 more authors.
Nutrition Research

Soy foods are the richest sources of isoflavones, mainly daidzein and genistein. Soy isoflavones are structurally similar to the steroid hormone 17. β-estradiol and may protect against breast cancer. S-(-)equol, a metabolite of the soy isoflavone daidzein, has a higher bioavailability and greater affinity for estrogen receptor β than daidzein. Approximately one-third of the Western population is able to produce S-(-)equol, and the ability is linked to certain gut microbes. We hypothesized that the prevalence of breast cancer, ductal hyperplasia, and overall breast pathology will be lower among S-(-)equol producing, as compared with nonproducing, postmenopausal women undergoing a breast biopsy. We tested our hypothesis using a cross-sectional study design. Usual diets of the participants were supplemented with 1 soy bar per day for 3 consecutive days. Liquid chromatography-multiple reaction ion monitoring mass spectrometry analysis of urine from 143 subjects revealed 25 (17.5%) as S-(-)equol producers. We found no statistically significant associations between S-(-)equol producing status and overall breast pathology (odds ratio [OR], 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-1.89), ductal hyperplasia (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.20-3.41), or breast cancer (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.16-1.87). However, the mean dietary isoflavone intake was much lower (0.3 mg/d) than in previous reports. Given that the amount of S-(-)equol produced in the gut depends on the amount of daidzein exposure, the low soy intake coupled with lower prevalence of S-(-)equol producing status in the study population favors toward null associations. Findings from our study could be used for further investigations on S-(-)equol producing status and disease risk. © 2014. Source

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