Nassau, Bahamas
Nassau, Bahamas

The College of The Bahamas is the national public institution of higher education in The Commonwealth of The Bahamas with campuses throughout the archipelago. The main campus is located in the capital city of Nassau, on the island of New Providence.COB is on track to become the national "University of The Bahamas" in 2015. As the national university of The Bahamas, its mission is to support and drive national development through education, research and innovation, and service, by offering high quality, signature programs grounded in the unique features of the Bahamian environment, economy and history. Wikipedia.


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De Luca P.A.,The College of The Bahamas | Vallejo-Marin M.,University of Stirling
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2013

Many plant species have evolved floral characteristics that restrict pollen access. Some of these species are visited by insects, principally bees, which make use of vibrations to extract pollen from anthers. Buzz-pollination, as this phenomenon is generally known, is a widespread method of fertilization for thousands of species in both natural and agricultural systems. Despite its prevalence in pollination systems, the ecological and evolutionary conditions that favour the evolution of buzz-pollination are poorly known. We briefly summarize the biology of buzz-pollination and review recent studies on plant and pollinator characteristics that affect pollen removal. We suggest that buzz-pollination evolves as the result of an escalation in the competition between plants and pollen-consuming floral visitors (including pollen thieves and true pollinators) to control the rate of pollen removal from flowers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Cooke S.J.,Carleton University | Murchie K.J.,The College of The Bahamas | Danylchuk A.J.,University of Massachusetts Amherst
BioScience | Year: 2011

The sustainable seafood movement has adopted a variety of certification and ecolabeling systems, as well as seafood-awareness campaigns, to influence industry and help consumers make informed decisions regarding their seafood consumption. However, a review of these programs revealed that the majority are focused on marine and coastal fisheries. Globally, freshwaters and their fish assemblages represent some of the most threatened systems and taxa because of multiple anthropogenic stressors. There is an urgent need to harness the momentum of the sustainable seafood movement for marine systems to benefit all aquatic systems, including freshwater. Moreover, given that freshwater systems are at particular risk in developing countries in which small-scale fisheries dominate, it is essential to expand awareness campaigns, through grassroots initiatives that differ significantly from current awareness campaigns that are global in focus, involve industrialized large-scale fisheries, and assume significant exports of seafood. Addressing the limitations of marine campaigns is a logical first step before launching new programs aimed at inland fisheries. In the long term, failure of the sustainable seafood movement to incorporate freshwater fisheries will lead to public perception that these fisheries are not in peril and may allow unsustainable practices to continue. © 2011 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.


Danylchuk A.J.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Suski C.D.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Mandelman J.W.,John H Prescott Marine Laboratory | Murchie K.J.,The College of The Bahamas | And 3 more authors.
Conservation Physiology | Year: 2014

Sport fishing for sharks, including fishing with the intent to release, is becoming more prevalent within the recreational angling community. Common targets of recreational anglers are juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) that frequent shallow tropical nearshore habitats. In this study, we captured 32 juvenile lemon sharks (530-875 mm total length) with conventional angling gear (i.e. spinning rods, dead fish bait and 5/0 barbed circle hooks) from the coastal waters of Eleuthera, The Bahamas, to determine the consequences of capture for individual sharks. Each shark was examined for hooking injuries, blood sampled to quantify physiological disturbance, assessed for reflex impairment and then monitored to assess postrelease behaviour and mortality. Four sharks (12.5%) died following release during the 15 min tracking period. Principal components (PC) analysis revealed four axes describing 66.5% of the variance for blood physiology parameters, total length and water temperature. The PC1 and PC3 scores, characterized by positive factor loadings for indicators of exercise-induced stress and blood ion concentrations, respectively, were significantly related to fight time but were not associated with short-term mortality. Short-term mortality was significantly related to factor scores for PC4 that loaded heavily for water temperature and total length. Ten sharks (31%) exhibited impaired reflexes, with loss of bite reflex being most prevalent. Sharks that died had the following characteristics: (i) they had two or more impaired reflexes; (ii) they were hooked in the basihyal; (iii) they exhibited no movement after the initial bout of directional swimming; and (iv) they experienced high water temperatures (i.e. > 31°C). Collectively, these results indicate that for juvenile lemon sharks inhabiting tropical flats, fight time can influence the degree of physiological disturbance, while water temperature contributes to the likelihood of survival following release. © The Author 2014.


Holden G.L.,University of Rhode Island | Holden G.L.,The College of The Bahamas | Freeman D.L.,University of Rhode Island
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2011

The classical thermodynamic properties of water clusters modeled by the TIP4P potential with and without the inclusion of molecular hydrogen are calculated using Monte Carlo methods. The temperature-dependent heat capacity curves of the dimer and the smaller pure water clusters having ring structures show low-temperature anomalies arising from the onset of a transition from librational motion to free rotational motion. Pure water clusters having cage structures display heat capacity anomalies characteristic of "melting" phase changes. The addition of molecular hydrogen to the water clusters has little impact on the structure of the water core, but low-temperature heat capacity anomalies are observed that arise from the onset of hindered to free rotational and translational motion of the hydrogen molecule with respect to the skeletal moieties of the core. The Gibbs free energy changes associated with the growth of pure water clusters and the addition of molecular hydrogen to the water clusters are determined using a combination of state-integration methods and an application of the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. For the temperature integration of the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, a quadrature method is introduced that avoids numerical difficulties arising from singularities in the integrand at low temperatures. For the growth of pure water clusters, the fine structure of the enthaply and the low-temperature Gibbs free energy as a function of cluster size is rationalized using an ansatz of molecular dipole orientations. For the addition of molecular hydrogen to water clusters, the Gibbs free energy change is a virtually flat function of cluster size showing no fine structure. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Hunter-Johnson Y.,The College of The Bahamas | Newton N.G.L.,Janelle Cambridge Johnson
International Journal of Special Education | Year: 2014

Bahamian classrooms are comprised of students with varying disabilities (emotional, physical, mental, and learning), and these students are failing to meet the requirements of their various grade levels due to inadequate interventions critical to addressing their individual needs. For these needs to be met in mainstream classrooms, Inclusive Education is inevitable. Consequently, a qualitative phenomenological study was conducted to survey perceptions of primary school teachers towards this practice. The sample included teachers from various schools within New Providence, The Bahamas. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews. Responses were qualitatively analyzed for themes and main concepts through open-coding. The study emphasizes the need to recognize teachers' perceptions towards inclusive education as a fundamental aspect of the practice's success in primary schools. Findings indicated that ninety percent of the teachers interviewed expressed negative perceptions of inclusive education. It was also revealed that the most prevalent influencing factors of the teachers' negative perceptions were lack of training in special education and inclusive education, and lack of resources. Twenty percent of the teachers expressed positive perceptions of inclusive education, stating however, that the success of such a practice depends greatly upon a myriad of elements.


McNamarah C.,The College of The Bahamas
Meccanica | Year: 2013

We demonstrate that having found a condition for the stationary points in multivariable calculus, that condition may be substituted back into the original equation and still yield the correct stationary points. With that, we emphasise the conditions that must be met in solving multivariable stationary point problems. We further use the analogy of the stationary points problem with finding stationary paths in calculus of variations to apply the latter to circular paths in an axisymmetric potential. Surprisingly, we find that this classical problem does not meet the required conditions. We subsequently derive new conditions that must be met and suggest a possible application. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Kidwell S.M.,University of Chicago | Rothfus T.A.,University of Chicago | Rothfus T.A.,The College of The Bahamas
Paleobiology | Year: 2010

All else being equal, species with short life spans are expected to be overrepresented in time-averaged death assemblages relative to their standing abundance in the living community, but the magnitude of the distortion of proportional abundance and assemblage evenness has received little attention. Here, information from 30 data sets on the living and dead abundances of marine bivalves in local habitats is combined with a global compilation of bivalve life spans to determine whether bias from mortality rate can explain observed differences in species proportional abundances. Although bivalve maximum life spans range from one to 75 years in these data sets, indicating annual mortality rates of 0.97 to 0.09, the "life span bias" (LB) of a speciesthe difference between its proportional abundance expected dead and that observed aliveis consistently small in magnitude (average change <2, maximum about 20) and random in sign relative to observed discordance (OD difference between that species' proportional abundance observed dead and that observed alive). The aggregate result for 413 living species occurrences is a significantly positive but weak correlation of OD to LB, with only 10 of variation in OD explained. The model performs better among longer-lived species than among shorter-lived species, probably because longer-lived species conform better to the model assumption that species maintain a constant proportional abundance in the living assemblage over time. Among individual data sets, only seven exhibit significant positive correlations between OD and LB. The model also under-predicts the cases where a death assemblage is dominated by a species that is shorter lived than the dominant species in the living assemblage, indicating that some factor(s) other than or in addition to mortality rate is responsible for OD. We can find no evidence of preservational bias linked to life span, for example through body size. This negative outcome reflects a weak biological relationship between life span and living abundance among bivalves in local habitats, contrary to the terrestrial paradigm, and points toward a simpler model of time-averaged death assemblage formation where higher abundances reflect (undersampled) past populations. Contrary to long-held expectations, variation in population turnover among species is not a major source of taphonomic bias in time-averaged death assemblages among bivalves and perhaps among other marine groups: bias must arise largely from other factors. © 2010 The Paleontological Society. All rights reserved.


Fielding W.J.,The College of The Bahamas
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science | Year: 2016

This article compares results from a study in 2014 with a similar study from 1998 (Fielding, 1999) to examine changes in the care of dogs in New Providence, The Bahamas. The results from a survey of 379 residents indicated a general lack of improvement in matters associated with the care of dogs during the past 16 years. For example, in 1998, it was estimated that 35% of caregivers had at least 1 dog sterilized, and in 2014, the corresponding figure was 37%. In 1998, 14% of households with dogs allowed their dogs to roam compared with 41.7% in 2014. These observations do not indicate inactivity on behalf of nonhuman animal welfare groups or archaic animal welfare legislation, as free spay/neuter campaigns have occurred and stricter laws have been passed since 1998. Rather, it is conjectured that these findings may reflect not only insufficiently sustained and coordinated initiatives in education, access to welfare interventions, and law enforcement, but also as-yet-unknown inadequacies in the approaches used in this cultural setting. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


Fielding W.J.,The College of The Bahamas
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science | Year: 2010

This article reports the first known study on the disposal of puppies in an Afro-Caribbean community. The study reported the fate of 2,427 puppies through 517 interviews with dog caregivers. The study reported that surviving puppies from "pure-bred" females were typically sold (60.1% of surviving puppies) whereas those from mongrel (potcakes)mothers were given away (48.4%). Pure-bred mothers produced the majority of surviving puppies (55.8%). Some caregivers failed to appreciate that the "stray dog problem" resulted from the inappropriate care of their dogs and disposal of puppies. Overall, the unstructured relinquishment (giving away) of puppies (22.7% of surviving puppies) could contribute to the roaming dog population unless they are cared for responsibly. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Fielding W.J.,The College of The Bahamas
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science | Year: 2010

This article reports the first known study on dog breeding in an Afro-Caribbean community. The study obtained the information on 517 matings through interviews with dog caregivers. Few litters (6.8%) from mongrels (potcakes) resulted from planned matings, whereas 66.5% of matings between purebred dogs were planned. Confinement of the female is often inadequate, and roaming dogs may have been responsible for 24.8% of the litters. The lack of confinement of potcakes has resulted in the perception that potcakes are "responsible" for the companion animal (pet) overpopulation problem; however, potcakes made up the minority (29.4%) of the breeding females. Until regulations concerning dog breeding are introduced, caregivers can be expected to continue exploiting their nonhuman animals to supplement their incomes from the sale of puppies. A consequence of unregulated breeding may also be inbred offspring of "purebred" dogs as few self-styled "professional" breeders appeared to use dogs who were not their own. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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