Bocetti C.I.,California University of Pennsylvania |
Scott J.M.,The College of Idaho
BioScience | Year: 2012
Kirtland's warbler is one of many conservation-reliant species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). This species has met recovery goals, but removing it from the protections of the ESA is problematic because of its reliance on ongoing conservation. We define conservation management agreements (CMAs) and describe how they may provide a mechanism to protect conservation-reliant species after delisting. We suggest that CMAs should include four major elements: (1) a conservation partnership capable of implementing management actions at conservation-relevant scales, (2) a conservation management plan based on the management actions in the species' successful recovery plan, (3) sufficient financial resources to provide the required conservation management, and (4) legal enforcement. We use the efforts of the Kirtland's Warbler Recovery Team as a case study of the application of CMAs to build and maintain public and private partnerships to ensure continuing management for this species after delisting. © 2012 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.
Cosens B.A.,The College of Idaho |
Williams M.K.,Carr Center for Human Rights Policy
Ecology and Society | Year: 2012
The 1964 Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada is currently under review. Under the treaty, the river is jointly operated by the two countries for hydropower and is the largest producer of hydropower in the western hemisphere. In considering the next phase of international river governance, the degree of uncertainty surrounding the drivers of change complicates efforts to predict and manage under traditional approaches that rely on historical ecosystem responses. At the same time, changes in social values have focused attention on ecosystem health, the decline of which has led to the listing of seven salmon and four steelhead populations under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Although adaptive management is considered one approach to resource management in the face of uncertainty, an early attempt at its implementation in the U.S. portion of the basin failed. We explore these issues in the context of resilience, taking the position that while adaptive management may foster ecological resilience, it is only one factor in the institutional changes needed to foster social-ecological resilience captured in the concept of adaptive governance. © 2012 by the author(s).
Luce C.H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Tonina D.,University of Idaho |
Gariglio F.,University of Idaho |
Applebee R.,The College of Idaho
Water Resources Research | Year: 2013
Work over the last decade has documented methods for estimating fluxes between streams and streambeds from time series of temperature at two depths in the streambed. We present substantial extension to the existing theory and practice of using temperature time series to estimate streambed water fluxes and thermal properties, including (1) a new explicit analytical solution to predict one-dimensional fluid velocity from amplitude and phase information; (2) an inverse function, also with explicit formulation; (3) methods to estimate fluid velocity from temperature measurements with unknown depths; (4) methods to estimate thermal diffusivity from the temperature time series when measurement depths are known; (5) methods to track streambed elevation between two sensors, given knowledge of the thermal diffusivity from (4) above; (6) methods to directly calculate the potential error in velocity estimates based on the measurement error characteristics; and (7) methods for validation of parameter estimates. We also provide discussion and theoretical insights developed from the solutions to better understand the physics and scaling of the propagation of the diurnal temperature variation through the streambed. In particular, we note that the equations developed do not replace existing equations applied to the analysis, rather they are new equations representing new aspects of the process, and, as a consequence, they increase the amount of information that can be derived from a particular set of thermal measurements. © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Eastman J.M.,University of Idaho |
Harmon L.J.,University of Idaho |
Tank D.C.,The College of Idaho
Methods in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2013
Approaches for efficient statistical estimation of large phylogenies are now available (Bioinformatics, 2006, 22, 2688), and yet we lack adequate tools for synthesizing information from previous analyses into large timetrees. Here, we present a cross-platform r tool that integrates with tree of life efforts by mapping divergence times from an existing timetree (a 'reference') to another uncalibrated phylogeny (a 'target') that samples from the same lineage. Leveraging existing methods for rate-smoothing phylograms, this tool enables the rapid generation of very large timetrees where direct estimation of the timing of lineage diversification is either impracticable or impossible. The primary output of the tool is to return divergence times for nodes resolved as concordant between the reference and target. Given the computed set of secondary calibrations, post hoc tree transformation can be accomplished using existing resources that assume either a strict or relaxed evolutionary clock. Our software is provided open source in the geiger package (http://cran.r-project.org/package=geiger) and is thoroughly demonstrated in the Supporting Information. © 2013 British Ecological Society.
Krouse R.Z.,The College of Idaho |
Ransdell L.B.,Boise State University |
Lucas S.M.,Boise State University |
Pritchard M.E.,Boise State University
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2011
Ultrarunners participate in running events that exceed the 26.2-mile marathon distance (e.g., 50k, 50-100 miles). Very little research exists on ultrarunners, especially women. This study is a descriptive study detailing the motivation, goal orientation, demographic characteristics (e.g., age, job demands, family structure), training habits (e.g., hours per week of training), and coach utilization of women ultrarunners. Participants (N = 344) were recruited via the Ultra List serve and 4 popular ultrarunning websites, and they completed a questionnaire on motivation, goal orientation, training, and coaching using Survey Monkey. General health orientation (mean ± SD) (4.71 ± 1.06) and psychological coping (4.71 ± 1.03) were the 2 strongest motivational factors. Participants were higher in task orientation (1.38 ± 0.68) (e.g., finishing the race or accomplishing various goals) than ego orientation (3.38 ± 1.01) (e.g., placing in the top 3 overall or beating an opponent). Women trained an average of 12.49 h·wk -1 and spent 64% of their time training alone. Training information came from their own experience, blogs, websites, and the Ultra List Serve. Over three-fourths of the participants (80%) did not use a coach because of cost and a perceived lack of necessity. Women ultrarunners in this study were task oriented, internally motivated, health, and financially conscious individuals. With additional information about women ultrarunners, coaches will be better prepared to work with this population and ultrarunners can improve their performance by learning about current participants' practices. © 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association.
Spencer A.C.,The College of Idaho
Journal of Genetic Counseling | Year: 2016
Critical thought and assessment of medical, emotional, and social problems faced by patients is central to genetic counselor training and development. However, primary emphasis on these critical problem-solving approaches can interfere with the development of empathic listening skills. Using a narrative medicine approach, I describe how learning to reframe one patient’s story of healing as a gift allowed me to become a more open and empathic listener. Ultimately, the empathy and understanding that I learned from this patient’s narrative added to what previous patients had taught me and helped me assist other patients (and myself) in identifying and nurturing healing narratives for people coping with illness and grief. The approach presented here emphasizes the importance of recognizing patients as valuable teachers in the development of higher-level empathy skills. © 2015, National Society of Genetic Counselors, Inc.
Cosens B.A.,The College of Idaho
Ecology and Society | Year: 2013
Ecologists have made great strides in developing criteria for describing the resilience of an ecological system. In addition, expansion of that effort to social-ecological systems has begun the process of identifying changes to the social system necessary to foster resilience in an ecological system such as the use of adaptive management and integrated ecosystem management. However, these changes to governance needed to foster ecosystem resilience will not be adopted by democratic societies without careful attention to their effect on the social system itself. Delegation of increased flexibility for adaptive management to resource management agencies must include careful attention to assuring that increased flexibility is exercised in a manner that is legitimate and responsive to the social system. Similarly, democratic systems proceed in incremental steps and are not likely to adopt wholesale changes to achieve integrated ecosystem management. This paper uses the concept of legitimacy in governance as a necessary component of any change to achieve greater social-ecological resilience and will turn to network theory as a means to facilitate legitimacy across multiple jurisdictions. © 2013 by the author(s).
Miller S.R.,The College of Idaho
Harvard Environmental Law Review | Year: 2013
Political and legal tools have emerged since the 1970s, and especially in the last two decades, that provide political and legal power to neighborhoods. However, these tools are often used in an ad hoc fashion, and there has been scant analysis of how these tools might work together effectively. This Article asserts that those locations in cities that evoke a "sense of place" are created not just with architectural or landscape design, but by the operation of neighborhood legal tools as well. This Article argues that cities consciously overlay the panoply of emergent neighborhood legal tools as a means of place-building. This approach is referred to in the Article as creation of a de facto "legal neighborhood." This approach does not call for secession of neighborhoods from cities or for the wholesale privatization of public functions, as have others that argue for neighborhood empowerment. Rather, the Article asserts that the collective operation of these neighborhood tools is greater than the sum of their parts, providing a method for civic engagement at a level city-wide politicians feel comfortable serving, in which residents feel comfortable participating, and which is proven to assist the kind of place-making that makes densely settled areas attractive. These features of the neighborhood make understanding legal neighborhoods a necessary component to any effort to address the built environment's social, political, and especially its environmental effects, such as climate change. The Article provides approaches for linking the neighborhood to city and regional affairs, and a history and theory of the concept of the neighborhood as an argument for the important role and function of neighborhoods in American life.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 365.81K | Year: 2011
This project will develop SWITCH (Southwest Idaho: The Comprehensive Herbarium), a virtual herbarium for Southwest Idaho and adjacent Oregon and Nevada, by imaging and databasing vascular and non-vascular plant and fungal collections in the region. SWITCH will provide internet access to an estimated 118,500 preserved plant, fungus, and lichen collections, and the resulting images and corresponding data will be made available through the Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria Portal. Plant specimens and data from this region are presently underrepresented in national efforts to understand and map plant diversity.
SWITCH will provide a critical resource for research scientists, students, federal and state agency land managers, and citizens by: i) contributing directly to several national biodiversity projects currently underway; ii) assisting scientists and others in tracking rare plants and invasive species; iii) providing support for policy formulation in the region; iv) supporting a program in which citizen scientists may learn and contribute to ongoing study of botanical and ecological heritage in Idaho; and iv) stimulating further interest in Idaho plants, fungi, and lichens. In addition, several students will be trained at two primarily undergraduate institutions, the College of Idaho and Boise State University.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: PERCEPTION, ACTION & COGNITION | Award Amount: 153.47K | Year: 2011
There are a growing number of websites and software packages that offer brain training courses that claim to improve functions such as memory and attention, which are grouped under the label of executive functions. Executive functions are general purpose control processes that allow us to monitor our behavior and to form and achieve our goals. They help us to focus on problems before us, to inhibit irrelevant information, and to successfully switch between multiple tasks. Recent research has shown modest support for the claim that targeted training regimens can improve executive functioning. It is not known, however, whether improvement in executive functioning can translate into improvement in academic performance.
An NSF-funded research project conducted by Dr. Meredith Minear and her students at The College of Idaho will investigate the nature of training-related improvements in executive functions and the extent to which such training can improve performance on complex tasks such reasoning, problem solving and reading comprehension. In a series of training studies, participants will be measured on a battery of cognitive tasks before and after 4 weeks of training on one or more executive functions. The resulting data will identify the most effective training program and whether there is any program for which there is meaningful transfer to complex real world tasks.
This project will involve a large number of undergraduate students in research both as collaborators, but also as participants in long term training studies. Both experiences will allow students to see how research can be applicable to their own lives and to society at large. Students who join the research team will have many opportunities to engage in data collection, analysis, presentation at regional and national conferences and authorship on peer-reviewed journal articles. This research project will benefit society by improving our understanding of the effects of training on executive function.