The Cleveland Museum of Natural History

Cleveland, OH, United States

The Cleveland Museum of Natural History

Cleveland, OH, United States
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Frost S.R.,University of Oregon | Jablonski N.G.,Pennsylvania State University | Haile-Selassie Y.,The Cleveland Museum of Natural History
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2014

A large series of fossil cercopithecids has been recovered from the hominid-bearing Woranso-Mille site, Afar State, northeastern Ethiopia. Here we report the taxonomy of those specimens from the Am-Ado, Aralee Issie, Korsi Dora, Makah Mera, and Mesgid Dora collection areas, which are all roughly contemporaneous and dated to between 3.6 and 3.8 million years ago. This series includes a minimum of two cercopithecine and three colobine species. Theropithecus oswaldi cf. darti is by far the most common species in the assemblage, making up over 90% of identifiable cercopithecid specimens. There is also at least one other species of papionin, which cannot be currently assigned to a genus. The colobines are here allocated to Cercopithecoides cf. meaveae and two other species, one small and one large, that cannot be currently assigned to genus.The T.oswaldi cf. darti series from Woranso-Mille is both the earliest and largest identified to date. It documents the earliest occurrence of the T.oswaldi lineage and strongly suggests that parallel evolution of molar morphology has occurred within the genus between T.oswaldi and Theropithecus brumpti. Given the dominance of monkeys at Woranso-Mille, and the preponderance of Theropithecus among cercopithecids, T.o. cf. darti is likely to be the most common mammal present at the 3.6-3.8 million-years-old localities of the Woranso-Mille study area. Some explanations for this unusual occurrence are explored, and implications for the paleoenvironment at Woranso-Mille are also discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Redmond B.G.,The Cleveland Museum of Natural History | McDonald H.G.,National Park Service | Greenfield H.J.,University of Manitoba | Burr M.L.,Firelands Historical Society
World Archaeology | Year: 2012

The nature and extent of early human exploitation of late Pleistocene mega-mammals of North America have been vigorously debated; however, direct evidence of predation has been established for a small number of taxa. Until now, evidence of butchering and human utilization of ground sloths has been limited to South America. Osteological and taphonomic analyses of one curated collection of Jefferson's Ground Sloth (Megalonyx jeffersonii) from northern Ohio, USA, have identified possible butchering marks on one femur. Historical research determined that the skeletal remains were originally recovered from a bog prior to 1915. Metric assessment of the ten skeletal elements identified this sloth as one of the largest individuals on record. SEM analysis of the left femur documented forty-one stone-tool marks, and their pattern and location indicate the filleting of leg muscles. XAD-purified bone collagen from the femur returned an AMS 14C radiocarbon age of 11,740±35 bp (13,738 to 13,435 cal. bp), which is as much as 700 years older than the calculated maximum age for Clovis. Although diminished somewhat by the lack of primary provenience data, these results offer significant evidence for late Pleistocene human exploitation of this North American taxon. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Haile-Selassie Y.,The Cleveland Museum of Natural History | Haile-Selassie Y.,Case Western Reserve University | Simpson S.W.,Case Western Reserve University
Journal of Mammalian Evolution | Year: 2013

Kolpochoerus (Mammalia: Suidae) is a suine genus represented by a number of species from Plio-Pleistocene sites in Africa. While the general trends in Kolpochoerus evolution are broadly known, gaps in the fossil record preclude an understanding of the details of its evolutionary tempo and mode. Here, we describe a new species, Kolpochoerus millensis, based on new fossil material from the Woranso-Mille and Gona sites in the Central Afar region of Ethiopia and dated to 3.5-3.8 million years ago (Ma). Third molars of K. millensis are metrically and morphologically intermediate between the early Pliocene K. deheinzelini and earliest late Pliocene K. afarensis. It appears that K. deheinzelini, K. millensis, and K. afarensis are temporally disjunct and phenetically distinguishable parts of a single evolving lineage. The recognition of these chronospecies provides additional evidence for anagenetic evolution. It demonstrates clearly the presence of transitional forms in the fossil record. The extensive and well-dated Kolpochoerus fossil record serves as one of the best documented examples of the occurrence of phyletic evolution. Moreover, K. millensis is one of the best biochronological markers in eastern Africa for the time between 3.5 and 3.8 Ma. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Sanders W.J.,University of Michigan | Haile-Selassie Y.,The Cleveland Museum of Natural History | Haile-Selassie Y.,Case Western Reserve University
Journal of Mammalian Evolution | Year: 2012

Recent fieldwork at Woranso-Mille, Ethiopia led to the recovery of an abundant, diverse mammalian fauna that includes remains of the early hominid Australopithecus afarensis. Proboscideans are among the taxa well sampled at the site, primarily by gnathodental specimens, dated to the mid-Pliocene interval of 3. 8-3. 6 Ma. These fossils document traces of the last anancine gomphotheres (Anancus ultimus) in eastern Africa and several elephant taxa. Comparative study of the elephant fossils indicates the presence of cf. Mammuthus sp. "Hadar-type," cf. Elephas ekorensis, E. recki brumpti, and cf. Loxodonta adaurora adaurora. Proboscidean evolution in the mid-Pliocene is interesting because during this time archaic elephants were completely replaced by basal members of crown elephant lineages, taxonomic diversity was high (multiple elephant species, anancine gomphotheres, stegodonts, and deinotheres), and elephants were undergoing substantial reorganization of the craniodental masticatory apparatus, presumably in response to the spread of more open habitats and greater competition for grazing resources. The Woranso-Mille sample is important because this interval is only represented elsewhere in eastern Africa by a small number of sites, and because adaptive diversification among early crown elephants requires greater clarification. Morphometric contrasts among the fossil dentition from Woranso-Mille presage the differential success of elephant lineages in eastern Africa during the Pleistocene, providing hints about the beginnings of competitive displacement. Differences between E. recki brumpti from Woranso-Mille and the slightly younger Sidi Hakoma Member of the Hadar Formation reveal the beginnings of continuous, directional morphometric change that characterized the lineage. Reconsideration of E. recki subspecies indicates that they are arbitrary lineage divisions tied to geochronological boundaries (with utility for biochronological correlation at well sampled sites) rather than real phylogenetic entities, but does not reject monophyly or anagenetic evolution of the lineage. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


A typical female orchid mantis, Hymenopus coronatus, shows conspicuous white coloration and large flower mimicking lobes on the legs. Credit: Rick Wherley A team of scientists at The Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Australia, and Germany discovered that the orchid mantis looks like a flower due to the exploitation of pollinating insects as prey by its praying mantis ancestors. By studying the evolutionary relationships of the orchid mantis and its distant relatives, the team discovered that females in the orchid mantis lineage increased in size and changed color over their evolutionary history to gain advantage over large pollinating insects, such as bees, as well as the ability to attract them for predation. However, the morphologically dissimilar males are small and camouflaged, enabling them to live a life of predator avoidance and mate finding. The team found that this difference in males and females, termed sexual dimorphism, was likely the result of female predatory success that favored larger and more conspicuously colored individuals. This result challenges the traditional explanation for sexual dimorphism in arthropods as an increase in female egg production and suggests female predation strategy led to the differing male and female ecologies in the orchid mantises. The research was published online in the journal Scientific Reports. Lead author Dr. Gavin Svenson of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and co-authors used their evolutionary reconstruction of the group to demonstrate that a size increase in floral associated mantises provided access to more prey options, which set the stage for the evolution of floral simulation through size, shape, and color modifications that helped attract insect pollinators as prey. Thanks to a body of ecological research on the orchid mantis previously conducted by co-author Dr. James O'Hanlon of Macquarie University in Australia, it was known that females masquerade as flowers (floral simulation) to attract pollinating insects to eat, but that they do not sit on flowers themselves. This knowledge helped the team decipher the likely evolutionary scenario that gave rise to floral simulation in the orchid mantises and provided the opportunity to correct the long-held misunderstanding that orchid mantises sit on orchids, which their namesake incorrectly suggests. "This study is a demonstration of how basic systematics research can inform our understanding of evolution by establishing patterns not previously seen," said co-author Henrique Rodrigues. "Bringing together ecological research with an evolutionary analysis enabled us to explain how such a remarkable, flower masquerading lineage of praying mantis could evolve," said co-author Sydney Brannoch. Co-authors Rodrigues and Brannoch are both Ph.D. candidates at Case Western Reserve University and are based at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History in Svenson's laboratory. The research project, under the direction of Svenson, was primarily focused on the systematics and taxonomy of a broader lineage of praying mantises, which included the orchid mantises. Acting on a suggestion made by co-author Dr. Frank Wieland of the Palatinate Museum of Natural History in Germany, the team took notice of a small group of extremely large and colorful mantises that grouped together in the evolutionary analysis. Although these relationships were never before outlined, they suggested a clear pattern of extreme sexual dimorphism in the orchid mantis lineage. "It was not our intention to study the orchid mantises specifically, but when a unique pattern emerges, one must pursue fascinating results," said Svenson, curator of invertebrate zoology at The Cleveland Museum of Natural History and adjunct assistant professor at Case Western Reserve University. "Finding the first case of males and females of a praying mantis species living extremely different adult lives was interesting and unique, but discovering the first case of arthropod sexual size dimorphism caused by female predatory success rather than investment in reproduction was both surprising and rewarding. This is particularly true when the original research focus was to fix the classification system to reflect true evolutionary relationship. Finding patterns in your study group that inform broader evolutionary understanding is the holy grail of systematics research." Explore further: Scientists pioneer new method to classify praying mantises More information: Svenson, G.J., Brannoch, S.K., Rodrigues, H.M., O'Hanlon, J., and F. Wieland. 2016. Selection for predation, not female fecundity, explains sexual size dimorphism in orchid mantises. Scientific Reports 6: 37753 DOI: 10.1038/srep37753


News Article | December 17, 2015
Site: phys.org

Specimens collected in Rwanda in 2013 by The Cleveland Museum of Natural History during the first formal praying mantis survey conducted in the African country. Credit: Gavin Svenson A college student working at The Cleveland Museum of Natural History was lead author on the first formal survey of praying mantises in Rwanda, which revealed a 155 percent increase in praying mantis species diversity for the African country. Riley Tedrow, a Case Western Reserve University graduate student pursuing field research for the Museum, participated in two surveys across four locations in Rwanda, including three national parks. The survey was published Oct. 1, 2015 in the journal Zootaxa. Tedrow helped conduct fieldwork in 2013 and 2014 with collaborators at Rwanda's Kitabi College of Conservation and Environmental Management. The team collected 739 insects representing 41 species from Akagera National Park, Nyungwe National Park, Volcanoes National Park and the Arboretum de Ruhande at the National University of Rwanda. Collection methods included sweep netting and light trapping to gather grass, bark, flower and lichen mantises. The survey added 28 new praying mantis species records to Rwanda. These add to the 18 previously recorded praying mantis species for the country. In addition, 20 new praying mantis species were recorded for the region, including neighboring Uganda and Burundi. The study has increased scientists' knowledge of the praying mantis species present in Rwanda by 155 percent. Tedrow discovered and described one new species of praying mantis, Dystacta tigrifrutex (meaning "bush tiger mantis"), in 2014 from the insects collected. Research continues on the specimens already inventoried. "This survey highlights a need for more thorough sampling of the insect fauna of Rwanda," said lead author Tedrow. "Undiscovered diversity is still out there—strange, wonderful and fascinating creatures whose stories I want to tell. With greater levels of biodiversity recorded in this country, we can inform conservation decisions in these important African national parks." Tedrow worked under the direction of co-author Dr. Gavin Svenson, curator of invertebrate zoology at The Cleveland Museum of Natural History. They studied the morphological features of the praying mantis specimens and scoured scientific literature in order to classify and inventory the insects for the survey. "Discovering this region to be so much richer in diversity for such a well-known insect group has broader implications for other plants and animals there," said Svenson. "This research is significant because it builds a baseline of knowledge about the insect ecology in Rwanda. It documents new biodiversity that we did not know existed, which enables us to monitor and track the species that live in these rainforest, savannah and mountain habitats." This study was done as part of Svenson's broader research program, which is focused on the evolutionary patterns of relationship, distribution and complex features of praying mantises. His current research project aims to align new sources of relationship evidence (DNA sequence data) with morphology and other features to create a new and accurate classification system for praying mantises that reflects true evolutionary relationships. Explore further: Study shows orchid mantis more attractive to their prey than real orchids A survey of the praying mantises of Rwanda, including new records (Insecta, Mantodea)


News Article | December 1, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Cleveland... A team of scientists at The Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Australia, and Germany discovered that the orchid mantis looks like a flower due to the exploitation of pollinating insects as prey by its praying mantis ancestors. By studying the evolutionary relationships of the orchid mantis and its distant relatives, the team discovered that females in the orchid mantis lineage increased in size and changed color over their evolutionary history to gain advantage over large pollinating insects, such as bees, as well as the ability to attract them for predation. However, the morphologically dissimilar males are small and camouflaged, enabling them to live a life of predator avoidance and mate finding. The team found that this difference in males and females, termed sexual dimorphism, was likely the result of female predatory success that favored larger and more conspicuously colored individuals. This result challenges the traditional explanation for sexual dimorphism in arthropods as an increase in female egg production and suggests female predation strategy led to the differing male and female ecologies in the orchid mantises. The research was published online in the journal Scientific Reports. Lead author Dr. Gavin Svenson of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and co-authors used their evolutionary reconstruction of the group to demonstrate that a size increase in floral associated mantises provided access to more prey options, which set the stage for the evolution of floral simulation through size, shape, and color modifications that helped attract insect pollinators as prey. Thanks to a body of ecological research on the orchid mantis previously conducted by co-author Dr. James O'Hanlon of Macquarie University in Australia, it was known that females masquerade as flowers (floral simulation) to attract pollinating insects to eat, but that they do not sit on flowers themselves. This knowledge helped the team decipher the likely evolutionary scenario that gave rise to floral simulation in the orchid mantises and provided the opportunity to correct the long-held misunderstanding that orchid mantises sit on orchids, which their namesake incorrectly suggests. "This study is a demonstration of how basic systematics research can inform our understanding of evolution by establishing patterns not previously seen," said co-author Henrique Rodrigues. "Bringing together ecological research with an evolutionary analysis enabled us to explain how such a remarkable, flower masquerading lineage of praying mantis could evolve," said co-author Sydney Brannoch. Co-authors Rodrigues and Brannoch are both Ph.D. candidates at Case Western Reserve University and are based at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History in Svenson's laboratory. The research project, under the direction of Svenson, was primarily focused on the systematics and taxonomy of a broader lineage of praying mantises, which included the orchid mantises. Acting on a suggestion made by co-author Dr. Frank Wieland of the Palatinate Museum of Natural History in Germany, the team took notice of a small group of extremely large and colorful mantises that grouped together in the evolutionary analysis. Although these relationships were never before outlined, they suggested a clear pattern of extreme sexual dimorphism in the orchid mantis lineage. "It was not our intention to study the orchid mantises specifically, but when a unique pattern emerges, one must pursue fascinating results," said Svenson, curator of invertebrate zoology at The Cleveland Museum of Natural History and adjunct assistant professor at Case Western Reserve University. "Finding the first case of males and females of a praying mantis species living extremely different adult lives was interesting and unique, but discovering the first case of arthropod sexual size dimorphism caused by female predatory success rather than investment in reproduction was both surprising and rewarding. This is particularly true when the original research focus was to fix the classification system to reflect true evolutionary relationship. Finding patterns in your study group that inform broader evolutionary understanding is the holy grail of systematics research." The Cleveland Museum of Natural History, incorporated in 1920, is one of the finest institutions of its kind in North America. It is noted for its collections, research, educational programs and exhibits. The collections encompass more than 5 million artifacts and specimens, and research of global significance focuses on 10 natural science disciplines. The Museum conserves biological diversity through the protection of more than 7,300 acres of natural areas. It promotes health education with local programs and distance learning that extends across the globe. Its GreenCityBlueLake Institute is a center of thought and practice for the design of green and sustainable cities. http://www. Svenson, G.J., Brannoch, S.K., Rodrigues, H.M., O'Hanlon, J., and F. Wieland. 2016. Selection for predation, not female fecundity, explains sexual size dimorphism in orchid mantises. Scientific Reports 6: 37753 DOI:10.1038/srep37753


Werdelin L.,Swedish Museum of Natural History | Lewis M.E.,The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey | Haile-Selassie Y.,The Cleveland Museum of Natural History
Journal of Mammalian Evolution | Year: 2014

The Woranso-Mille paleontological study area, located in the central Afar region of Ethiopia, is one of the most important Pliocene sites in eastern Africa. Since the Woranso-Mille Research Project began its investigation in 2005, more than 7,500 mammalian fossils, including hominins, have been collected from 80 vertebrate localities. This paper provides a preliminary assessment of the Woranso-Mille carnivoran record, a record that is of great interest given the high level of species richness of African carnivorans during the middle Pliocene. Craniodental and postcranial material of canids, lutrine mustelids, viverrids, herpestids, machairodontine and feline felids, and hyaenids has been recovered. Thus, this diverse fauna includes not only the largest carnivorans from this time period (e.g., Enhydriodon and Homotherium), but also some of the smallest, including mongooses, civets, genets, and felids, some of which represent new species. However, the diversity of small taxa does not yet approach that found in the roughly contemporaneous Upper Laetolil Beds of Tanzania. In contrast, lutrine mustelids are better represented at Woranso-Mille than at Kanapoi (Kenya) or Laetoli (Tanzania), which is to be expected given the diversity of habitats represented at these sites. While more material from these sites and others are necessary to truly understand the increased diversity within the early to middle Pliocene eastern African carnivoran guild, it is clear that the material from Woranso-Mille has the potential to fill many of the gaps in our knowledge of carnivorans during this time period. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Researchers identified and named a new genus of horned praying mantis, naming it Alangularis for its angled wings. Credit: Rick Wherley A scientist from The Cleveland Museum of Natural History led research that revised the horned praying mantis group and traced the evolution of its distinctive camouflage features. Dr. Gavin Svenson and his colleagues identified a new genus and new tribe of praying mantis and discovered that disruptive camouflage evolved twice within the group. The second, more recent, occasion occurred after the re-evolution of a special leg lobe that disguises the body profile to help the insect hide from predators. The research was published Nov. 16, 2015 online in the journal Systematic Entomology. Svenson and the team studied the origins of 16 features that provide disruptive crypsis for the Central and South American horned praying mantises of the subfamily Vatinae, all of which contribute to their camouflage strategy. These features include a head process or horn and leafy looking lobes on the legs. The team analyzed 33 species and nearly 400 specimens from Museum collections in the United States, South America and Europe as well as insects Svenson recently sampled from South America. "Praying mantises depend on camouflage to avoid predators, but we have known little about the patterns of how body structures contributing to crypsis evolved," said Dr. Gavin Svenson, curator of invertebrate zoology at The Cleveland Museum of Natural History and lead author of the study. "We discovered that two mantis lineages evolved structural camouflage millions of years apart in very similar ways. This not only suggests that re-evolution occurred, but demonstrates that the developmental mechanisms controlling cryptic features may be more ancient than the camouflaged mantises themselves." The research revealed that leafy lobes on the middle and hind legs evolved during the first origin of the horned mantises. Afterward, one lineage invested in a camouflage strategy and began to accumulate other leg lobes, an extended head process or horn, and even lobes on the abdomen, while the other lost these early evolved leg lobes and relied only on coloration to blend in with vegetation. However, a second, smaller lineage of mantises within this color camouflaged group began to gain disruptive cryptic features about 20 million years later after the re-evolution of those same early originating leg lobes. This second shift to a strategy of disruptive camouflage appears to have followed a remarkably similar path as the first through the accumulation of leg lobes in the same positions, as well as a similar extended head process or horn. Researchers suggested that the second origin of disruptive camouflage was most likely controlled by genetic and developmental mechanisms that were already present. Essentially, the capability to evolve camouflage was already in the genetic toolkit of the lineage and those features re-emerged when it was advantageous for survival. According to Svenson, since many other, more distantly related, mantis groups have disruptive camouflage, it may have evolved very early in praying mantises and is mostly a matter of being turned on or off in a variety of ways. The scientists used DNA sequence data generated in the Cleveland Museum of Natural History's DNA Laboratory and studied morphological features to reclassify the group. The newly identified genus, Alangularis, recognizes a unique and colorful species of praying mantis that was incorrectly included within another genus. The new genus name translates to "angled wings," which reflects its acute wing tips. The new tribe, Heterovatini, was established to include two genera that share many characteristics with the rest of Vatinae, but retain no disruptive cryptic features other than the shared leg lobes. "Finding that camouflage evolved twice in the horned mantises was surprising," said Svenson. "But even more amazing is how alike the two distantly related camouflaged groups really are and what that means for camouflage evolution in mantises as a whole." Svenson's research is focused on the evolutionary patterns of relationship, distribution and complex features of praying mantises. His current research project aims to align new sources of relationship evidence (DNA sequence data) with morphology and other features to create a new and accurate classification system for praying mantises that reflects true evolutionary relationships. Explore further: Octopuses focus on key features for successful camouflage More information: GAVIN J. SVENSON et al. Re-evolution of a morphological precursor of crypsis investment in the newly revised horned praying mantises (Insecta, Mantodea, Vatinae), Systematic Entomology (2015). DOI: 10.1111/syen.12151


News Article | November 30, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Cleveland... Paleontologists at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and Dickinson Museum Center (North Dakota) have just published new research describing the behavior of sauropod dinosaurs, the largest animals to ever walk the earth. Sauropods, like the museum's own Haplocanthosaurus, are famous for their size, but it is their unusual feet that caught the interest of researchers. "Sauropod hind-feet possess enlarged, flattened claws which folded across and under the foot when the animal squeezed or 'flexed' its foot muscles," said Lee Hall, Vertebrate Paleontology Preparator at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and lead author on the study. "When foot muscles are flexed in a human, the toes are pulled straight down. When a sauropod flexed its toes the claws folded across the front of the foot, rotating downwards, creating an overlapping stack of flat scrapers." This bizarre arrangement is unique among dinosaurs and has puzzled paleontologists: How could such a shape evolve? Does the unusual shape correspond with an unusual behavior? Several competing hypotheses, or scientific questions, have been proposed. One, the "substrate grip" hypothesis, proposed that the overlapping claws would have been employed in slippery, muddy environments like river banks or lakeshores, providing traction and prevent miring. Another, the "scratch digging" hypothesis, suggested that the claws would have formed an effective scraper, like a garden hoe, and would have been utilized for excavating nests. Both hypotheses were plausible, until scientists looked at a new line of evidence. Coauthor Dr. Denver Fowler, who led the group's previous study on sauropod claws added: "dinosaur behavior is a tricky subject to address because most fossils are obviously evidence of dead animals, rather than living ones. However, we can go beyond speculation to actually test hypotheses of behavior if we understand what kinds of subtle evidence is recorded in fossils." The eureka moment for the research group came when they considered alternative ways to test their hypothesis. "Prior studies have tried to answer this question by examining the bones of sauropod feet, but no one looked at the tracks those feet left," said Hall. Trackways are the fossilized impressions left by an animal's feet after it walked through soft, wet sediment like mud or silt. "We studied over 30 tracks, all of which preserve the morphology of the foot and position of the claws while these animals were walking in muddy substrates. In some cases, impressions of the skin and scales from the bottoms of the feet are visible." Hall and his coauthors Ashley Hall (also of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History), and Dr. Denver W. Fowler (Dickinson Museum Center, North Dakota), reached out to researchers across the world for images of well-preserved sauropod tracks, and received a wealth of data and photographs from Texas, to Morocco, to Portugal. The fossil tracks showed that sauropods did not utilize their unique claw flexing arrangement while walking in deep, wet mud, meaning they did not use them to help 'grip' while walking in muddy areas. Instead, the toes were either carried in a neutral position or extended outwards, which was unexpected. The study concludes it is more likely that the claws of sauropods were an adaptation for excavating nests, a behavior corroborated by comparison with similarly shaped claws used by some species of tortoises for digging, and fossil evidence of trench-like nests in which sauropod eggs have been discovered. "We're fascinated with the bones of their long necks and size of their gargantuan bodies, but not many have looked at what's going on with their feet," said Ashley Hall. "This now begs the question of which sex was building nests? Did males or females have larger claws? Can we test this?" Fowler added "surely the most exciting thing about dinosaurs is understanding how they lived; our new study takes us one step closer." The study, titled "The flexion of sauropod pedal unguals and testing the substrate grip hypotheses using the trackway fossil record," was published in the book "Dinosaur Tracks: The Next Steps" (Indiana University Press, 2016). The Cleveland Museum of Natural History, incorporated in 1920, is one of the finest institutions of its kind in North America. It is noted for its collections, research, educational programs and exhibits. The collections encompass more than 5 million artifacts and specimens, and research of global significance focuses on 10 natural science disciplines. The Museum conserves biological diversity through the protection of more than 7,300 acres of natural areas. It promotes health education with local programs and distance learning that extends across the globe. Its GreenCityBlueLake Institute is a center of thought and practice for the design of green and sustainable cities. http://www.

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