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Friday Harbor, WA, United States

Gearheard S.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Pocernich M.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Stewart R.,McGill University | Huntington H.P.,The Clearing
Climatic Change | Year: 2010

Connecting indigenous and scientific observations and knowledge has received much attention in the Arctic, not least in the area of climate change. On some levels, this connection can be established relatively easily, linking observations of similar phenomena or of various effects stemming from the same cause. Closer examinations of specific environmental parameters, however, can lead to far more complex and difficult attempts to make those connections. In this paper we examine observations of wind at Clyde River, Nunavut, Canada. For Inuit, many activities are governed by environmental conditions. Wind, in particular, is identified by Inuit as one of the most important environmental variables, playing a key role in driving sea ice, ocean, and weather conditions that can either enable or constrain hunting, travel, or other important activities. Inuit observe wind patterns closely, and through many means, as a result of their close connection to the land and sea. Inuit in many parts of Nunavut are reporting changes in wind patterns in recent years. At Clyde River, a community on the eastern coast of Baffin Island, Inuit have observed that at least three key aspects of wind have changed over the last few decades: wind variability, wind speed, and wind direction. At the same time, wind observations are also available from an operational weather station located at Clyde River. An analysis of this information shows little change in wind parameters since the mid-1970s. Though the station data and Inuit observations correspond in some instances, overall, there is limited agreement. Although the differences in the two perspectives may point to possible biases that may exist from both sources-the weather station data may not be representative of the region, Inuit observations or explanations may be inaccurate, or the instrumental and Inuit observations may not be of the same phenomena-they also raise interesting questions about methods for observing wind and the nature of Arctic winds. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Andarini R.,The Clearing
Energy Procedia | Year: 2014

In this paper, the results of building thermal simulation of office buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia are presented using the simulation and visualization tool of DesignBuilder, an Energy Plus based dynamic thermal simulation engine. The simulation results show that for new office design, building envelope optimization and utilizing high efficiency office equipment and HVAC system, the annual energy consumption decreased by 43%. For the renovated building, implementing task lighting will reduce the energy consumption by 25%. In addition, applying task lighting with scenario improving glazing material with increasing chiller's efficiency will give additional potential reduction of 30%. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source


Huntington H.P.,The Clearing | Goodstein E.,Bard College | Euskirchen E.,University of Alaska Fairbanks
Ambio | Year: 2012

Climate change incurs costs, but government adaptation budgets are limited. Beyond a certain point, individuals must bear the costs or adapt to new circumstances, creating political-economic tipping points that we explore in three examples. First, many Alaska Native villages are threatened by erosion, but relocation is expensive. To date, critically threatened villages have not yet been relocated, suggesting that we may already have reached a political-economic tipping point. Second, forest fires shape landscape and ecological characteristics in interior Alaska. Climate-driven changes in fire regime require increased fire-fighting resources to maintain current patterns of vegetation and land use, but these resources appear to be less and less available, indicating an approaching tipping point. Third, rapid sea level rise, for example from accelerated melting of the Greenland ice sheet, will create a choice between protection and abandonment for coastal regions throughout the world, a potential global tipping point comparable to those now faced by Arctic communities. The examples illustrate the basic idea that if costs of response increase more quickly than available resources, then society has fewer and fewer options as time passes. © 2012 Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Source


Patent
The Clearing | Date: 2014-02-14

A method for effecting electronic payment, safeguarding banking and account information, while utilizing existing payment systems. The method comprises generating a system routing number and a payment identification code (PIC) relating to the beneficiarys account information, distributing payment identification codes to the existing payment system and financial institutions owning the account related to the payment identification codes, and the originator receiving a system routing number and the beneficiarys PIC number. The method also includes the originator communicating a payment instruction to a financial institution of the originator, wherein the payment instruction includes the system routing number beneficiarys payment identification code, the originators financial institution receiving the payment instruction from the originator, wherein if the received PIC matches the originators financial institution internal list of PICs, the originators financial institution performs an on us transaction, and transmitting a payment instruction to an existing payment system in a case where the received PIC does not match originators financial institution internal list of PICs. The method also includes the existing payment system validating the received PIC, wherein if the PIC is invalid, the payment instruction is returned to the originators financial institution, converting the PIC and system routing number to a receiving payment instruction in a case where the PIC is a valid PIC, wherein the receiving payment instruction includes the beneficiarys financial institutions routing number and the beneficiarys account number. The existing payment system transmits the receiving payment instruction to a financial institution of the beneficiary, that financial institution credits the beneficiarys account if no problem exists, and otherwise returns a receiving payment instruction to the existing payment system. Upon receipt of the returned receiving payment instruction, the existing payment system translates the receiving payment instruction into the payment instruction prior to transmitting the payment instruction back to originators financial institution.


Patent
The Clearing | Date: 2014-10-14

A method for effecting electronic payment, safeguarding banking and account information, while utilizing existing payment systems. The method comprises generating a system routing number and a payment identification code (PIC) relating to the beneficiarys account information, distributing payment identification codes to the existing payment system and financial institutions owning the account related to the payment identification codes, and the originator receiving a system routing number and the beneficiarys PIC number. The method also includes the originator communicating a payment instruction to a financial institution of the originator, wherein the payment instruction includes the system routing number beneficiarys payment identification code, the originators financial institution receiving the payment instruction from the originator, wherein if the received PIC matches the originators financial institution internal list of PICs, the originators financial institution performs an on us transaction, and transmitting a payment instruction to an existing payment system in a case where the received PIC does not match originators financial institution internal list of PICs. The method also includes the existing payment system validating the received PIC, wherein if the PIC is invalid, the payment instruction is returned to the originators financial institution, converting the PIC and system routing number to a receiving payment instruction in a case where the PIC is a valid PIC, wherein the receiving payment instruction includes the beneficiarys financial institutions routing number and the beneficiarys account number. The existing payment system transmits the receiving payment instruction to a financial institution of the beneficiary, that financial institution credits the beneficiarys account if no problem exists, and otherwise returns a receiving payment instruction to the existing payment system. Upon receipt of the returned receiving payment instruction, the existing payment system translates the receiving payment instruction into the payment instruction prior to transmitting the payment instruction back to originators financial institution.

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