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Angert A.L.,Colorado State University | Crozier L.G.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Rissler L.J.,University of Alabama | Gilman S.E.,The Claremont Colleges | And 2 more authors.
Ecology Letters | Year: 2011

Although some organisms have moved to higher elevations and latitudes in response to recent climate change, there is little consensus regarding the capacity of different species to track rapid climate change via range shifts. Understanding species' abilities to shift ranges has important implications for assessing extinction risk and predicting future community structure. At an expanding front, colonization rates are determined jointly by rates of reproduction and dispersal. In addition, establishment of viable populations requires that individuals find suitable resources in novel habitats. Thus, species with greater dispersal ability, reproductive rate and ecological generalization should be more likely to expand into new regions under climate change. Here, we assess current evidence for the relationship between leading-edge range shifts and species' traits. We found expected relationships for several datasets, including diet breadth in North American Passeriformes and egg-laying habitat in British Odonata. However, models generally had low explanatory power. Thus, even statistically and biologically meaningful relationships are unlikely to be of predictive utility for conservation and management. Trait-based range shift forecasts face several challenges, including quantifying relevant natural history variation across large numbers of species and coupling these data with extrinsic factors such as habitat fragmentation and availability. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS. Source


Nessler J.A.,California State University, San Marcos | Spargo T.,California State University, San Marcos | Craig-Jones A.,California State University, San Marcos | Milton J.G.,The Claremont Colleges
Gait and Posture | Year: 2016

Gait is often modeled as a limit cycle oscillator. When perturbed, this type of system will reset its output in a stereotypical manner, which may be shifted in time with respect to its original trajectory. In contrast to other biological oscillators, relatively little is known regarding the phase resetting properties for human gait. Because humans must often reset their gait in response to perturbation, an improved understanding of this behavior may have implications for reducing the risk of fall. The purpose of this study was to further evaluate phase resetting behaviors in human gait with particular emphasis on (1) variance of the phase resetting response among healthy individuals and (2) the sensitivity of this response to walking speed. Seventeen healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at 2.0. mph, 2.5. mph, and 3.0. mph while their right limb was perturbed randomly every 12-20 strides. Discrete, mechanical perturbations were applied by a rope that was attached to each subject's ankle and actuated by a motorized arm. Perturbations were applied once during a select stride, always at a different point in the swing phase, and the amount of phase shift that occurred on the subsequent stride was recorded. A subset of 8 subjects also walked at their preferred walking speed for 3 additional trials on a separate day in order to provide an estimate of within-subjects variability. The results suggested that phase resetting behavior is relatively consistent among subjects, but that minor variations in phase resetting behavior are attributable to walking at different treadmill speeds. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Grinberg Y.Y.,University of Chicago | Milton J.G.,The Claremont Colleges | Kraig R.P.,University of Chicago
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Spreading depression (SD) is thought to cause migraine aura, and perhaps migraine, and includes a transient loss of synaptic activity preceded and followed by increased neuronal excitability. Activated microglia influence neuronal activity and play an important role in homeostatic synaptic scaling via release of cytokines. Furthermore, enhanced neuronal function activates microglia to not only secrete cytokines but also to increase the motility of their branches, with somata remaining stationary. While SD also increases the release of cytokines from microglia, the effects on microglial movement from its synaptic activity fluctuations are unknown. Accordingly, we used time-lapse imaging of rat hippocampal slice cultures to probe for microglial movement associated with SD. We observed that in uninjured brain whole microglial cells moved. The movements were well described by the type of Lévy flight known to be associated with an optimal search pattern. Hours after SD, when synaptic activity rose, microglial cell movement was significantly increased. To test how synaptic activity influenced microglial movement, we enhanced neuronal activity with chemical long-term potentiation or LPS and abolished it with TTX. We found that microglial movement was significantly decreased by enhanced neuronal activity and significantly increased by activity blockade. Finally, application of glutamate and ATP to mimic restoration of synaptic activity in the presence of TTX stopped microglial movement that was otherwise seen with TTX. Thus, synaptic activity retains microglial cells in place and an absence of synaptic activity sends them off to influence wider expanses of brain. Perhaps increased microglial movements after SD are a long-lasting, and thus maladaptive, response in which these cells increase neuronal activity via contact or paracrine signaling, which results in increased susceptibility of larger brain areas to SD. If true, then targeting mechanisms that retard activity-dependent microglial Lévy flights may be a novel means to reduce susceptibility to migraine. © 2011 Grinberg et al. Source


Milton J.G.,The Claremont Colleges | Radunskaya A.E.,Pomona College | Lee A.H.,Claremont McKenna College | de Pillis L.G.,Harvey Mudd College | Bartlett D.F.,Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Sciences
CBE Life Sciences Education | Year: 2010

The success of interdisciplinary research teams depends largely upon skills related to team performance. We evaluated student and team performance for undergraduate biology and mathematics students who participated in summer research projects conducted in off-campus laboratories. The student teams were composed of a student with a mathematics background and an experimentally oriented biology student. The team mentors typically ranked the students' performance very good to excellent over a range of attributes that included creativity and ability to conduct independent research. However, the research teams experienced problems meeting prespecified deadlines due to poor time and project management skills. Because time and project management skills can be readily taught and moreover typically reflect good research practices, simple modifications should be made to undergraduate curricula so that the promise of initiatives, such as MATH-BIO 2010, can be implemented. © 2010 The American Society for Cell Biology. Source


Quan A.,Harvey Mudd College | Quan A.,Interthinx | Osorio I.,University of Kansas Medical Center | Ohira T.,The Claremont Colleges | And 2 more authors.
Chaos | Year: 2011

Resonance can occur in bistable dynamical systems due to the interplay between noise and delay (τ) in the absence of a periodic input. We investigate resonance in a two-neuron model with mutual time-delayed inhibitory feedback. For appropriate choices of the parameters and inputs three fixed-point attractors co-exist: two are stable and one is unstable. In the absence of noise, delay-induced transient oscillations (referred to herein as DITOs) arise whenever the initial function is tuned sufficiently close to the unstable fixed-point. In the presence of noisy perturbations, DITOs arise spontaneously. Since the correlation time for the stationary dynamics is ~τ, we approximated a higher order Markov process by a three-state Markov chain model by rescaling time as t → 2sτ, identifying the states based on whether the sub-intervals were completely confined to one basin of attraction (the two stable attractors) or straddled the separatrix, and then determining the transition probability matrix empirically. The resultant Markov chain model captured the switching behaviors including the statistical properties of the DITOs. Our observations indicate that time-delayed and noisy bistable dynamical systems are prone to generate DITOs as switches between the two attractors occur. Bistable systems arise transiently in situations when one attractor is gradually replaced by another. This may explain, for example, why seizures in certain epileptic syndromes tend to occur as sleep stages change. © 2011 American Institute of Physics. Source

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