SEATTLE — College tuitions are becoming prohibitively expensive for many people, with Harvard University now costing almost $61,000 a year for tuition, room, board and fees. Given the high price tag, is it worth it to graduate from a highly selective school versus a less expensive, lower-tier one? The answer is, yes, "selectivity matters a lot," at least for most majors, according to two researchers. The duo compared the salaries of students who graduated from highly to not-so-selective colleges in the United States. In all, they found that 10 years after graduation, "graduates from the most selective colleges earn[ed] about $16,000 more annually compared to graduates from average selective colleges," they wrote in a new study, which has yet to be published in a peer-reviewed journal. [9 Ways Going to College Affects Your Health] Moreover, the researchers found that a gender gap exists, even among graduates of highly selective colleges, such as Harvard and Stanford. Women who attended top-tier colleges earned about 16 percent less than men who majored in the same discipline at the same or other highly selective colleges, the researchers said. But selectivity still mattered. Women who graduated from top colleges earned more, on average, than women who attended less selective institutions, such as Indiana State University or Eastern Oregon University, the scientists found. The researchers, Dirk Witteveen, a doctoral candidate of sociology, and Paul Attewell, a professor of sociology and urban education — both at The Graduate Center at The City University of New York (CUNY) — investigated whether there was a link between college selectivity and future salary. Selectivity is different from quality, the researchers noted. Whereas quality usually measures a student's SAT/ACT scores, expenditures per full-time student and the ratio of students to faculty members, selectivity is a narrower concept that emphasizes the academic composition of the student body. Selectivity is usually measured by average SAT scores, they said. "Selectivity acts as a powerful signal of the intelligence and ambition of a college’s student body as a whole, rather than a measure specifying the quality of the education that a particular graduate has received," the researchers wrote in a draft of their study. Past studies have found a small link, or even no link, between attending a selective college and earning a higher average salary. But it's difficult to account for certain factors that also could influence the results and to use a nationally representative sample, and the new study did do those things, the researchers said. For instance, the scientists controlled for gender, age, race, parental income, parental education, SAT score, college GPA, college major and region of employment following college, among other factors. In addition, they included only college graduates who are now full-time employees. Then, the researchers looked at nationally representative surveys from 3,840 full-time workers who graduated from college in 1993 and 4,670 full-time workers who graduated in 2008. The 1993 group gave results 10 years after graduation (when they were about 33 years old), and the 2008 group gave results four years after graduation (about 26 years old). The gender findings were stark. The women in the 1993 group who graduated from the most selective colleges earned an average yearly income of $62,400 in 2003 — about as much as the men who graduated from the least selective schools, who made an average of $62,200. The gender gap was also visible four years after graduation for the 2008 group, with the top-tier women earning less (about $52,400) than the low-tier men (about $56,500). [7 Ways to Reduce Job Stress] Students could still make impressive salaries at lower-tier schools, as long as they majored in the fields of health, business/management and the math-related disciplines, such as computer science and engineering, the researchers found. Given that earnings in these fields are relatively similar among the highly selective and very selective colleges, "you might therefore want to choose a slightly lower competitive college if you think they have a good program in your favorite discipline," as a way to save money on tuition, Witteveen told Live Science in an email.
Piszczatowski R.T.,The City University of New York |
Piszczatowski R.T.,Yeshiva University |
Rafferty B.J.,Manhattan College |
Rozado A.,The City University of New York |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2015
Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CCN2/CTGF) and Nephroblastoma Overexpressed (CCN3/NOV) execute key functions within the hematopoietic compartment. Both are abundant in the bone marrow stroma, which is a niche for hematopoiesis and supports marrow function. Roles for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) and all-trans retinoic acid in the bone marrow have also been elucidated. Interestingly, some of the annotated roles of these vitamins overlap with established functions of CCN2 and CCN3. Yet, no factor has been identified that unifies these observations. In this study, we report the regulation of the CTGF and NOV genes by Myeloid Zinc Finger-1 (MZF-1), a hematopoietic transcription factor. We show the interaction of MZF-1 with the CTGF and NOV promoters in several cell types. Up-regulation of MZF-1 via calcitriol and vitamin A induces expression of CTGF and NOV, implicating a role for these vitamins in the functions of these two genes. Lastly, knockdown of MZF1 reduces levels of CTGF and NOV. Collectively, our results argue that MZF-1 regulates the CTGF and NOV genes in the hematopoietic compartment, and may be involved in their respective functions in the stroma. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Yue Y.R.,The City University of New York |
Loh J.M.,New Jersey Institute of Technology
Canadian Journal of Statistics | Year: 2015
In this work, we consider variable selection when modelling the intensity and clustering of inhomogeneous spatial point processes, integrating well-known procedures in the respective fields of variable selection and spatial point process modelling to introduce a simple procedure for variable selection in spatial point process modelling. Specifically, we consider modelling spatial point data with Poisson, pairwise interaction and Neyman-Scott cluster models, and incorporate LASSO, adaptive LASSO, and elastic net regularization methods into the generalized linear model framework for fitting these point models. We perform simulation studies to explore the effectiveness of using each of the three-regularization methods in our procedure. We then use the procedure in two applications, modelling the intensity and clustering of rainforest trees with soil and geographical covariates using a Neyman-Scott model, and of fast food restaurant locations in New York City with Census variables and school locations using a pairwise interaction model. © 2015 Statistical Society of Canada.
News Article | January 19, 2016
We all want to be liked, but if you find yourself spending too much energy thinking about what others think about you, you may be creating an unhealthy pattern that can be debilitating to your success. While it’s normal to care about what others think, problems can arise when the only way you can measure your success is through the eyes of others. And the truth is, we concern ourselves about what others think about us far more than others actually think about us. Here’s how to avoid the worry: "It’s only natural that you’re going to start taking the signals that you see and hear about what people think about you," says Nihar Chhaya, executive coach and president of the leadership development company Partner Exec. After all, humans are social beings, and what others think of us does contribute to our self-identity. Caring about others' opinions of us can stem from childhood tendencies to look for external validation from parents and teachers. But as an adult, deciding that what people think has to validate what you do can have you obsessively worrying, and that can be restrictive to your success. "If everything that happens to you is based on someone else giving you the thumbs up or green light, then you’re going to be at the beck and call of external factors," says Chhaya. People critique us a lot less than we think they do. Often, what we perceive as our weaknesses feel more severe to us than others think they are. "As human beings with egos and an innate self-awareness of our own feelings, actions, and thoughts, we tend to notice and greatly exaggerate our flaws while assuming everyone around us has a microscope focused on faults, mistakes, and slip-ups," says Melody J. Wilding, workplace psychology coach and professor of human behavior at The City University of New York Hunter College. The truth is, others don’t notice our flaws nearly as much as we think they do, because they’re too busy noticing and exaggerating their own flaws. Take some time to reflect and develop some self-insight so you can develop your own internal story as a counterweight to the story you believe others have of you. Often what you think others think of you is your own inner critic speaking to you. We can overcome that inner critic by providing ourselves with evidence to the contrary. So you think your coworker hates you, but do you have any evidence that’s true? While you may not want to go up to them and ask point blank whether they hate you, Chhaya says you can approach a conversation about the topic by asking how they feel about working with you, and whether there’s anything you can do to make it easier for the two of you to work better together. This can help you validate what you think they think of you, and sometimes shut down that inner critic that makes up stories in your mind that are often harsher than the reality. We can never know with certainty what someone else thinks about you. For many, this constant worry about what others think about us is uncomfortable. No one likes to sit in a room with someone they think has negative feelings toward them. One way to resist the emotional impact of the "spotlight effect" is by continuing to place yourself in uncomfortable situations. If you fear being judged by others, participating in a toastmasters' group, for example, may be a great way to experience being in the spotlight and practice taming your inner critic. It’s normal to have some amount of self-doubt and worry about how we are perceived by others. In fact, Chhaya says a small amount of worry can be a positive thing. "It can make you more empathetic or more intuitive, because you are tuned in to the signals of those around you," he says. People who care about what other people think are, in general, better listeners, more flexible, and more aware and, Chhaya says, can make better leaders.
Zhao Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences |
Zhao Z.,U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information |
Martin C.,University Graduate Center |
Fan R.,The City University of New York |
And 3 more authors.
BMC Bioinformatics | Year: 2016
Background: The recent outbreak of Ebola has been cited as the largest in history. Despite this global health crisis, few drugs are available to efficiently treat Ebola infections. Drug repurposing provides a potentially efficient solution to accelerating the development of therapeutic approaches in response to Ebola outbreak. To identify such candidates, we use an integrated structural systems pharmacology pipeline which combines proteome-scale ligand binding site comparison, protein-ligand docking, and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation. Results: One thousand seven hundred and sixty-six FDA-approved drugs and 259 experimental drugs were screened to identify those with the potential to inhibit the replication and virulence of Ebola, and to determine the binding modes with their respective targets. Initial screening has identified a number of promising hits. Notably, Indinavir; an HIV protease inhibitor, may be effective in reducing the virulence of Ebola. Additionally, an antifungal (Sinefungin) and several anti-viral drugs (e.g. Maraviroc, Abacavir, Telbivudine, and Cidofovir) may inhibit Ebola RNA-directed RNA polymerase through targeting the MTase domain. Conclusions: Identification of safe drug candidates is a crucial first step toward the determination of timely and effective therapeutic approaches to address and mitigate the impact of the Ebola global crisis and future outbreaks of pathogenic diseases. Further in vitro and in vivo testing to evaluate the anti-Ebola activity of these drugs is warranted. © 2016 Zhao et al.