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Gray K.,The Childrens Hospital at Westmead
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2014

Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV), which is also known as clubfoot, is a common congenital orthopaedic condition characterised by an excessively turned in foot (equinovarus) and high medial longitudinal arch (cavus). If left untreated it can result in long-term disability, deformity and pain. Interventions can be conservative (such as splinting or stretching) or surgical. The review was first published in 2012 and we reviewed new searches in 2013 (update published 2014). To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for CTEV. On 29 April 2013, we searched CENTRAL (2013, Issue 3 in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (January 1966 to April 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2013), CINAHL Plus (January 1937 to April 2013), AMED (1985 to April 2013), and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro to April 2013). We also searched for ongoing trials in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (2006 to July 2013) and ClinicalTrials.gov (to November 2013). We checked the references of included studies. We searched NHSEED, DARE and HTA for information for inclusion in the Discussion. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs evaluating interventions for CTEV. Participants were people of all ages with CTEV of either one or both feet. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias in included trials and extracted the data. We contacted authors of included trials for missing information. We collected adverse event information from trials when it was available. We identified 14 trials in which there were 607 participants; one of the trials was newly included at this 2014 update. The use of different outcome measures prevented pooling of data for meta-analysis even when interventions and participants were comparable. All trials displayed bias in four or more areas. One trial reported on the primary outcome of function, though raw data were not available to be analysed. We were able to analyse data on foot alignment (Pirani score), a secondary outcome, from three trials. Two of the trials involved participants at initial presentation. One reported that the Ponseti technique significantly improved foot alignment compared to the Kite technique. After 10 weeks of serial casting, the average total Pirani score of the Ponseti group was 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98 to 1.32) lower than that of the Kite group. The second trial found the Ponseti technique to be superior to a traditional technique, with average total Pirani scores of the Ponseti participants 1.50 lower (95% CI 0.72 to 2.28) after serial casting and Achilles tenotomy. A trial in which the type of presentation was not reported found no difference between an accelerated Ponseti or standard Ponseti treatment. At the end of serial casting, the average total Pirani scores in the standard group were 0.31 lower (95% CI -0.40 to 1.02) than the accelerated group. Two trials in initial cases found relapse following Ponseti treatment was more likely to be corrected with further serial casting compared to the Kite groups which more often required major surgery (risk difference 25% and 50%). There is a lack of evidence for different plaster casting products, the addition of botulinum toxin A during the Ponseti technique, different types of major foot surgery, continuous passive motion treatment following major foot surgery, or treatment of relapsed or neglected cases of CTEV. Most trials did not report on adverse events. In trials evaluating serial casting techniques, adverse events included cast slippage (needing replacement), plaster sores (pressure areas) and skin irritation. Adverse events following surgical procedures included infection and the need for skin grafting. From the limited evidence available, the Ponseti technique produced significantly better short-term foot alignment compared to the Kite technique and compared to a traditional technique. The quality of this evidence was low to very low. An accelerated Ponseti technique may be as effective as a standard technique, according to moderate quality evidence. Relapse following the Kite technique more often led to major surgery compared to relapse following the Ponseti technique. We could draw no conclusions from other included trials because of the limited use of validated outcome measures and lack of available raw data. Future randomised controlled trials should address these issues.


Deshpande A.V.,The Childrens Hospital at Westmead
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Enuresis (bedwetting) is a socially stigmatising and stressful condition which affects around 15% to 20% of five-year olds and up to 2% of young adults. Although there is a high rate of spontaneous remission, the social, emotional and psychological costs to the children can be great. Drugs (including desmopressin, tricyclics and other drugs) have often been tried to treat nocturnal enuresis. To assess the effects of drugs other than desmopressin and tricyclics on nocturnal enuresis in children and to compare them with other interventions. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register of trials (searched 15 December 2011), which includes searches of MEDLINE and CENTRAL, to identify published and unpublished randomised and quasi-randomised trials. The reference lists of relevant articles were also searched. All randomised trials of drugs (excluding desmopressin or tricyclics) for treating nocturnal enuresis in children up to the age of 16 years were included in the review. Trials were eligible for inclusion if children were randomised to receive drugs compared with placebo, other drugs or behavioral interventions for nocturnal enuresis. Studies which included children with daytime urinary incontinence or children with organic conditions were also included in this review if the focus of the study was on nocturnal enuresis. Trials focused solely on daytime wetting and trials of adults with nocturnal enuresis were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed the quality of the eligible trials and extracted data. Differences between review authors were settled by discussion with a third review author. A total of 40 randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (10 new in this update) met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 1780 out of 2440 children who enrolled receiving an active drug other than desmopressin or a tricyclic. In all, 31 different drugs or classes of drugs were tested. The trials were generally small or of poor methodological quality. There was an overall paucity of data regarding outcomes after treatment was withdrawn.For drugs versus placebo, when compared to placebo indomethacin (risk ratio [RR] 0.36, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.79), diazepam (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.46), mestorelone (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.62) and atomoxetine (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.94) appeared to reduce the number of children failing to have 14 consecutive dry nights. Although indomethacin and diclofenac were better than placebo during treatment, they were not as effective as desmopressin and there was a higher chance of adverse effects. None of the medications were effective in reducing relapse rates, although this was only reported in five placebo controlled trials.For drugs versus drugs, combination therapy with imipramine and oxybutynin was more effective than imipramine monotherapy (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.94) and also had significantly lower relapse rates than imipramine monotherapy (RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.77). There was an overall paucity of data regarding outcomes after treatment was withdrawn.For drugs versus behavioural therapy, bedwetting alarms were found to be better than amphetamine (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.12 to 4.29), oxybutynin (RR 3.25, 95% CI 1.77 to 5.98), and oxybutynin plus holding exercises (RR 3.3, 95% CI 1.84 to 6.18) in reducing the number of children failing to achieve 14 consecutive dry nights.Adverse effects of drugs were seen in 19 trials while 17 trials did not adequately report the occurrence of side effects. There was not enough evidence to judge whether or not the included drugs cured bedwetting when used alone. There was limited evidence to suggest that desmopressin, imipramine and enuresis alarms therapy were better than the included drugs to which they were compared. In other reviews, desmopressin, tricyclics and alarm interventions have been shown to be effective during treatment. There was also evidence to suggest that combination therapy with anticholinergic therapy increased the efficacy of other established therapies such as imipramine, desmopressin and enuresis alarms by reducing the relapse rates, by about 20%, although it was not possible to identify the characteristics of children who would benefit from combination therapy. Future studies should evaluate the role of combination therapy against established treatments in rigorous and adequately powered trials.


Britton P.,The Childrens Hospital at Westmead
New South Wales public health bulletin | Year: 2013

In Australia, tuberculosis notification rates have plateaued at a low level and disease is highly concentrated in immigrant communities where children may be affected. Many clinicians regard tuberculosis as an adult disease, hence it is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of sick children. This paper provides a brief overview of the natural history of the disease in children to demonstrate the importance of taking a careful tuberculosis exposure history. It also provides guidance regarding the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of tuberculosis in children. The management of paediatric cases is not difficult if important differences with adult disease are carefully considered; these differences are discussed in detail.


Robinson P.D.,The Childrens Hospital at Westmead | Robinson P.D.,University of Sydney
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews | Year: 2014

Obesity has complex and incompletely understood effects upon the respiratory system in childhood, which differs in some aspects to those seen in adults. There is increasing evidence that excess adiposity will impact negatively upon static and dynamic respiratory function as measured through lung volumes, lung compartment mechanics, measures of airway function and exercise capability to varying degrees. Further information is needed to better understand the effects in children, and the importance of onset and duration of obesity on subsequent outcomes. Consensus about how best to express adiposity is also an essential part of this process and fat distribution is another important factor. From a clinical standpoint this creates challenges in distinguishing a deconditioned obese young person from a non-atopic asthmatic because of symptom overlap and lung function testing results, including responses seen during airway challenges. There is evidence to support the role of weight loss in achieving normalisation of lung function parameters, but as always with obesity there are enormous challenges in realising this goal for many subjects. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Baines D.,The Childrens Hospital at Westmead
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews | Year: 2011

The prevalence of obesity in the paediatric population is increasing worldwide. As a result, more and more children will present for anaesthetic care for surgery and other procedures. This review aims to provide some recent information regarding the anaesthetic management of the obese child. Unfortunately, there is little evidence on which to base our clinical care of these children and what information is available is often extrapolated from adult practice. Further prospective studies are required, with careful attention to definitions and terminology, so that populations can be compared and appropriate conclusions drawn. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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