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Gunja N.,The Childrens Hospital at Westmead | Gunja N.,University of Sydney
Journal of Medical Toxicology | Year: 2013

Despite their improved pharmacokinetic profile, the Z-drugs, zolpidem, zopiclone, and zaleplon, have a spectrum of adverse effects comparable to benzodiazepines. This review focuses on the impairment from Z-drugs on cognition, behavior, psychomotor performance, and driving ability. Z-drugs are short-acting GABA agonists that reduce sleep latency without disturbing sleep architecture. Bizarre behavioral effects have prompted warnings on the prescription, dispensation, and use of Z-drugs. Psychomotor impairment, falls, and hip fractures are more likely to occur with Z-drugs that have longer half-lives, that are taken at higher-than-recommended doses and when mixed with other psychoactive substances including alcohol. Zopiclone and higher doses of zolpidem are more likely to cause anterograde amnesia than zaleplon. Z-drugs, especially zolpidem, are associated with complex behaviors such as sleepwalking, sleep-driving, and hallucinations. Patients taking zopiclone and zolpidem have an increased risk of motor vehicle collisions, over double that of unexposed drivers. Driving impairment occurs with zopiclone and higher doses of zolpidem but is unlikely to occur after 4 h post-zaleplon administration. The residual effect of Z-drugs on next-day cognitive and psychomotor performance has significant impact on lifestyle, safety, and occupational considerations, including motor vehicle and machine operation. The risk-benefit analysis of Z-drugs in the treatment of insomnia, particularly in the elderly, may not favor treatment due to the increased risks of falls and motor vehicle collisions. Prescribers should warn patients taking Z-drugs of minimum time thresholds before they operate machinery or drive motor vehicles. © 2013 American College of Medical Toxicology.


Kawada P.S.,The Childrens Hospital at Westmead
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Year: 2016

INTRODUCTION:: Lower gastrointestinal endoscopy (LGIE)/colonoscopy is frequently performed for rectal bleeding, recurrent abdominal pain and the diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Although these are common indications, the yield for isolated rectal bleeding and recurrent abdominal pain in the otherwise well child has not been described. METHODS:: A retrospective analysis of patients who had had a LGIE/colonoscopy from January 2001 – December 2010 was performed. The following data were collected: demographic data, indication, distance reached, macroscopic findings, microscopic findings, diagnosis, additional procedures and complications. RESULTS:: There were a total of 999 colonoscopies. The colonoscopy was normal in 390/999 (39%). The commonest indication for colonoscopy was for a diagnosis of suspected IBD, 449/999 (45%). IBD was confirmed in 282/449 (63%) but colonoscopy was normal in 143/449 (32%) of suspected IBD. Colonoscopy was performed for rectal bleeding in 197/999 (20%) of whom 141/197 (72%) were normal. There were 46 (5%) colonoscopies performed for recurrent abdominal pain which were all normal. Our completion rate to the cecum and beyond was 521/999 (52%). Our perforation rate over the 10 years was 0.2%. CONCLUSIONS:: Colonoscopy is a safe procedure in pediatrics, however thirty-nine percent of colonoscopies in this series were normal. Many of these could have been avoided by eliminating colonoscopy in patients with recurrent abdominal pain in the absence of other clinical features, conservative management with laxatives for those with fresh blood per rectum typical of anal fissures, and fecal calprotectin screening prior to endoscopy in patients with suspected IBD. © 2016 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology,


Hodson E.M.,The Childrens Hospital at Westmead
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2013

The risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in solid organ transplant recipients has resulted in the frequent use of prophylaxis with the aim of preventing the clinical syndrome associated with CMV infection. This is an update of a review first published in 2005 and updated in 2008. To determine the benefits and harms of antiviral medications to prevent CMV disease and all-cause mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library to February 2004 for the first version of this review. The Cochrane Renal Group's specialised register was searched to February 2007 and to July 2011 for the first and current updates of the review without language restriction. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing antiviral medications with placebo or no treatment, comparing different antiviral medications and comparing different regimens of the same antiviral medications in recipients of any solid organ transplant. Studies examining pre-emptive therapy were excluded. Two authors independently assessed study eligibility, risk of bias and extracted data. Results were reported as risk ratios (RR) or risk differences (RD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes and by mean difference (MD) with 95% CI for continuous outcomes. Statistical analyses were performed using the random-effects model. Subgroup analysis and univariate meta-regression were performed using restricted maximum-likelihood to estimate the between study variance. Multivariate meta-regression was performed to investigate whether the results were altered after allowing for differences in drugs used, organ transplanted, and recipient CMV serostatus at the time of transplantation. We identified 37 studies (4342 participants). Risk of bias attributes were poorly performed or reported with low risk of bias reported for sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding and selective outcome reporting in 25% or fewer studies.Prophylaxis with aciclovir, ganciclovir or valaciclovir compared with placebo or no treatment significantly reduced the risk for CMV disease (19 studies; RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.52), CMV infection (17 studies; RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.77), and all-cause mortality (17 studies; RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.92) primarily due to reduced mortality from CMV disease (7 studies; RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.78). Prophylaxis reduced the risk of herpes simplex and herpes zoster disease, bacterial and protozoal infections but not fungal infection, acute rejection or graft loss.Meta-regression showed no significant difference in the relative benefit of treatment (risk of CMV disease or all-cause mortality) by organ transplanted or CMV serostatus; no conclusions were possible for CMV negative recipients of negative organs.Neurological dysfunction was more common with ganciclovir and valaciclovir compared with placebo/no treatment. In direct comparison studies, ganciclovir was more effective than aciclovir in preventing CMV disease (7 studies; RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.60) and leucopenia was more common with aciclovir. Valganciclovir and IV ganciclovir were as effective as oral ganciclovir. The efficacy and adverse effects of valganciclovir/ganciclovir did not differ from valaciclovir in three small studies. Extended duration prophylaxis significantly reduced the risk of CMV disease compared with three months therapy (2 studies; RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.35). Leucopenia was more common with extended duration prophylaxis but severe treatment associated adverse effects did not differ between extended and three month durations of treatment. Prophylaxis with antiviral medications reduces CMV disease and CMV-associated mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. These data suggest that antiviral prophylaxis should be used routinely in CMV positive recipients and in CMV negative recipients of CMV positive organ transplants.


Pravitsitthikul N.,The Childrens Hospital at Westmead
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

About 80% to 90% of children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) have relapses. Of these children, around half relapse frequently, and are at risk of adverse effects from corticosteroids. Non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive medications are used to prolong periods of remission in these children; however, these medications have significant potential adverse effects. Currently, there is no consensus about the most appropriate second line agent in children who are steroid sensitive, but who continue to relapse. This is the third update of a review first published in 2001 and updated in 2005 and 2008. To evaluate the benefits and harms of non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive medications in relapsing SSNS in children. For this update we searched the Cochrane Renal Group's Specialised Register to June 2013. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs were included if they compared non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive medications with placebo, prednisone or no treatment, different non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive medications and different doses, durations or routes of administration of the same non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive medication. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias of the included studies and extracted data. Statistical analyses were performed using a random-effects model and results expressed as risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We identified 32 studies (1443 children) of which one study is still ongoing. In the 31 studies with data, risk of bias assessment indicated that 11 (37%) and 16 (53%) studies were at low risk of bias for sequence generation and allocation concealment respectively. Six (29%) studies were at low risk of performance and detection bias. Twenty seven (87%) and 19 (60%) studies were at low risk of incomplete and selective reporting respectively. Alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide and chlorambucil) significantly reduced the risk of relapse at six to 12 months (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.60) and 12 to 24 months (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.46) compared with prednisone alone. There was no significant difference in relapse risk at two years between chlorambucil and cyclophosphamide (RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.80 to 2.13). There was no significant difference at one year between intravenous and oral cyclophosphamide (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.29). Cyclosporin was as effective as cyclophosphamide (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.48 to 2.35) and chlorambucil (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.53) at the end of therapy while levamisole (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.89) was more effective than steroids alone. However the effects of cyclosporin and levamisole were not sustained once treatment was stopped. In one small study cyclosporin significantly reduced the relapse rate compared with mycophenolate mofetil (MD 0.75, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.49). Limited data from a cross-over study suggested that cyclosporin was more effective than mycophenolate mofetil in maintaining remission. In steroid- and cyclosporin-dependent disease, rituximab significantly reduced the risk of relapse at three months compared with conventional therapy. Mizoribine and azathioprine were no more effective than placebo or prednisone alone in maintaining remission. Eight-week courses of cyclophosphamide or chlorambucil and prolonged courses of cyclosporin and levamisole reduce the risk of relapse in children with relapsing SSNS compared with corticosteroids alone. Limited data indicate that mycophenolate mofetil and rituximab are valuable additional medications for relapsing SSNS. However clinically important differences in efficacy are possible and further comparative studies are still needed.


Sinha Y.,The Childrens Hospital at Westmead
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

Auditory integration therapy was developed as a technique for improving abnormal sound sensitivity in individuals with behavioural disorders including autism spectrum disorders. Other sound therapies bearing similarities to auditory integration therapy include the Tomatis Method and Samonas Sound Therapy. To determine the effectiveness of auditory integration therapy or other methods of sound therapy in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. For this update, we searched the following databases in September 2010: CENTRAL (2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1950 to September week 2, 2010), EMBASE (1980 to Week 38, 2010), CINAHL (1937 to current), PsycINFO (1887 to current), ERIC (1966 to current), LILACS (September 2010) and the reference lists of published papers. One new study was found for inclusion. Randomised controlled trials involving adults or children with autism spectrum disorders. Treatment was auditory integration therapy or other sound therapies involving listening to music modified by filtering and modulation. Control groups could involve no treatment, a waiting list, usual therapy or a placebo equivalent. The outcomes were changes in core and associated features of autism spectrum disorders, auditory processing, quality of life and adverse events. Two independent review authors performed data extraction. All outcome data in the included papers were continuous. We calculated point estimates and standard errors from t-test scores and post-intervention means. Meta-analysis was inappropriate for the available data. We identified six randomised comtrolled trials of auditory integration therapy and one of Tomatis therapy, involving a total of 182 individuals aged three to 39 years. Two were cross-over trials. Five trials had fewer than 20 participants. Allocation concealment was inadequate for all studies. Twenty different outcome measures were used and only two outcomes were used by three or more studies. Meta-analysis was not possible due to very high heterogeneity or the presentation of data in unusable forms. Three studies (Bettison 1996; Zollweg 1997; Mudford 2000) did not demonstrate any benefit of auditory integration therapy over control conditions. Three studies (Veale 1993; Rimland 1995; Edelson 1999) reported improvements at three months for the auditory integration therapy group based on the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist, but they used a total score rather than subgroup scores, which is of questionable validity, and Veale's results did not reach statistical significance. Rimland 1995 also reported improvements at three months in the auditory integration therapy group for the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist subgroup scores. The study addressing Tomatis therapy (Corbett 2008) described an improvement in language with no difference between treatment and control conditions and did not report on the behavioural outcomes that were used in the auditory integration therapy trials. There is no evidence that auditory integration therapy or other sound therapies are effective as treatments for autism spectrum disorders. As synthesis of existing data has been limited by the disparate outcome measures used between studies, there is not sufficient evidence to prove that this treatment is not effective. However, of the seven studies including 182 participants that have been reported to date, only two (with an author in common), involving a total of 35 participants, report statistically significant improvements in the auditory intergration therapy group and for only two outcome measures (Aberrant Behaviour Checklist and Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist). As such, there is no evidence to support the use of auditory integration therapy at this time.


Britton P.,The Childrens Hospital at Westmead
New South Wales public health bulletin | Year: 2013

In Australia, tuberculosis notification rates have plateaued at a low level and disease is highly concentrated in immigrant communities where children may be affected. Many clinicians regard tuberculosis as an adult disease, hence it is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of sick children. This paper provides a brief overview of the natural history of the disease in children to demonstrate the importance of taking a careful tuberculosis exposure history. It also provides guidance regarding the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of tuberculosis in children. The management of paediatric cases is not difficult if important differences with adult disease are carefully considered; these differences are discussed in detail.


Deshpande A.V.,The Childrens Hospital at Westmead
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Enuresis (bedwetting) is a socially stigmatising and stressful condition which affects around 15% to 20% of five-year olds and up to 2% of young adults. Although there is a high rate of spontaneous remission, the social, emotional and psychological costs to the children can be great. Drugs (including desmopressin, tricyclics and other drugs) have often been tried to treat nocturnal enuresis. To assess the effects of drugs other than desmopressin and tricyclics on nocturnal enuresis in children and to compare them with other interventions. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register of trials (searched 15 December 2011), which includes searches of MEDLINE and CENTRAL, to identify published and unpublished randomised and quasi-randomised trials. The reference lists of relevant articles were also searched. All randomised trials of drugs (excluding desmopressin or tricyclics) for treating nocturnal enuresis in children up to the age of 16 years were included in the review. Trials were eligible for inclusion if children were randomised to receive drugs compared with placebo, other drugs or behavioral interventions for nocturnal enuresis. Studies which included children with daytime urinary incontinence or children with organic conditions were also included in this review if the focus of the study was on nocturnal enuresis. Trials focused solely on daytime wetting and trials of adults with nocturnal enuresis were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed the quality of the eligible trials and extracted data. Differences between review authors were settled by discussion with a third review author. A total of 40 randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (10 new in this update) met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 1780 out of 2440 children who enrolled receiving an active drug other than desmopressin or a tricyclic. In all, 31 different drugs or classes of drugs were tested. The trials were generally small or of poor methodological quality. There was an overall paucity of data regarding outcomes after treatment was withdrawn.For drugs versus placebo, when compared to placebo indomethacin (risk ratio [RR] 0.36, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.79), diazepam (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.46), mestorelone (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.62) and atomoxetine (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.94) appeared to reduce the number of children failing to have 14 consecutive dry nights. Although indomethacin and diclofenac were better than placebo during treatment, they were not as effective as desmopressin and there was a higher chance of adverse effects. None of the medications were effective in reducing relapse rates, although this was only reported in five placebo controlled trials.For drugs versus drugs, combination therapy with imipramine and oxybutynin was more effective than imipramine monotherapy (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.94) and also had significantly lower relapse rates than imipramine monotherapy (RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.77). There was an overall paucity of data regarding outcomes after treatment was withdrawn.For drugs versus behavioural therapy, bedwetting alarms were found to be better than amphetamine (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.12 to 4.29), oxybutynin (RR 3.25, 95% CI 1.77 to 5.98), and oxybutynin plus holding exercises (RR 3.3, 95% CI 1.84 to 6.18) in reducing the number of children failing to achieve 14 consecutive dry nights.Adverse effects of drugs were seen in 19 trials while 17 trials did not adequately report the occurrence of side effects. There was not enough evidence to judge whether or not the included drugs cured bedwetting when used alone. There was limited evidence to suggest that desmopressin, imipramine and enuresis alarms therapy were better than the included drugs to which they were compared. In other reviews, desmopressin, tricyclics and alarm interventions have been shown to be effective during treatment. There was also evidence to suggest that combination therapy with anticholinergic therapy increased the efficacy of other established therapies such as imipramine, desmopressin and enuresis alarms by reducing the relapse rates, by about 20%, although it was not possible to identify the characteristics of children who would benefit from combination therapy. Future studies should evaluate the role of combination therapy against established treatments in rigorous and adequately powered trials.


Mehr S.,The Childrens Hospital at Westmead | Wood N.,The Childrens Hospital at Westmead
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews | Year: 2012

Invasive pneumococcal infection remains a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. In developed nations, a substantial decrease in the incidence of IPD has been achieved with inclusion of the 7 valent protein conjugated pneumococcal vaccines (7vPCV) into paediatric vaccine schedules. In contrast, the incidence of IPD has changed little in developing nations. This is likely due to poor access to medical care and pneumococcal vaccination, the accompanying HIV and malnutrition burden, and the fact that 7vPCV does not contain the most common serotypes (1,5, 6A) responsible for IPD in many developing nations. The battle against IPD in developed nations is not over, with the rise of non-7vPCV serotypes since routine 7vPCV vaccination. This has necessitated the development and distribution of pneumococcal vaccines containing 3 or 6 additional serotypes. This article provides an overview on pneumococcal carriage and risk factors for IPD, the rise of non-7vCPV serotypes in the era of 7vPCV vaccination, and the current and newly available broader valent pneumococcal vaccines. © 2011.


Liu R.,The Childrens Hospital at Westmead
BMC musculoskeletal disorders | Year: 2011

Bone repair is dependent on the presence of osteocompetent progenitors that are able to differentiate and generate new bone. Muscle is found in close association with orthopaedic injury, however its capacity to make a cellular contribution to bone repair remains ambiguous. We hypothesized that myogenic cells of the MyoD-lineage are able to contribute to bone repair. We employed a MyoD-Cre+:Z/AP+ conditional reporter mouse in which all cells of the MyoD-lineage are permanently labeled with a human alkaline phosphatase (hAP) reporter. We tracked the contribution of MyoD-lineage cells in mouse models of tibial bone healing. In the absence of musculoskeletal trauma, MyoD-expressing cells are limited to skeletal muscle and the presence of reporter-positive cells in non-muscle tissues is negligible. In a closed tibial fracture model, there was no significant contribution of hAP+ cells to the healing callus. In contrast, open tibial fractures featuring periosteal stripping and muscle fenestration had up to 50% of hAP+ cells detected in the open fracture callus. At early stages of repair, many hAP+ cells exhibited a chondrocyte morphology, with lesser numbers of osteoblast-like hAP+ cells present at the later stages. Serial sections stained for hAP and type II and type I collagen showed that MyoD-lineage cells were surrounded by cartilaginous or bony matrix, suggestive of a functional role in the repair process. To exclude the prospect that osteoprogenitors spontaneously express MyoD during bone repair, we created a metaphyseal drill hole defect in the tibia. No hAP+ staining was observed in this model suggesting that the expression of MyoD is not a normal event for endogenous osteoprogenitors. These data document for the first time that muscle cells can play a significant secondary role in bone repair and this knowledge may lead to important translational applications in orthopaedic surgery. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/9/136.


Widmer R.P.,The Childrens Hospital at Westmead
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews | Year: 2010

Children with respiratory disorders are at risk of compromised oral health. It has been shown that both dental hard tissue damage (dental caries, dental erosion, mild enamel developmental defects) and soft tissue damage (gingivitis, periodontal disease and calculus formation) are more likely for such children. The aetiology of this increased risk of oral health problems is associated both with the illness itself and/or the drug therapies used. Oral health management strategies for the home and surgery are outlined. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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