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Martin-Herz S.P.,University of Washington | Zatzick D.F.,University of Washington | McMahon R.J.,Simon Fraser University | McMahon R.J.,The Child and Family Research Institute
Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review

This paper comprehensively reviews the published literature investigating health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following general traumatic injury in individuals between birth and 18 years. Studies were not considered if they primarily compared medical treatment options, evaluated physical function but not other aspects of HRQOL, or focused on non-traumatic wounds. Specific injury types (e. g., burn injury) were also not included. A total of 16 studies met criteria. Participants were age 1-18 years, with 12 studies considering children 5 years of age or older. Males were overrepresented. Injury severity averaged mostly in the moderate range. HRQOL deficits were noted in injured samples in all studies except the two with the longest time to follow-up (6-11 years). Some improvement was seen 6 months to 2 years after injury. Factors associated with HRQOL deficits were investigated, with acute and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms showing the strongest relationship. Research to date in this area is impressive, particularly the number of studies using prospective longitudinal investigations and validated measures. Challenges remain regarding methodologic differences, assessment of preinjury status, retention of participants, and management of missing data. Suggested future directions include extension of follow-up duration, utilization of pediatric self-report when possible, inclusion of younger children, and development of intervention programs. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Christians J.K.,Simon Fraser University | Beristain A.G.,University of British Columbia | Beristain A.G.,The Child and Family Research Institute
Cell Adhesion and Migration

Proper placental development and function is crucial for a healthy pregnancy, and there has been substantial research to identify markers of placental dysfunction for the early detection of pregnancy complications. Low first-trimester levels of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 12 (ADAM12) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) have been consistently associated with the subsequent development of preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. These molecules are both metalloproteinases secreted by the placenta that cleave insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs), although ADAM12 also has numerous other substrates. Recent work has identified ADAM12, and particularly its shorter variant, ADAM12S, as a regulator of the migration and invasion of trophoblasts into the lining of the uterus, a critical step in normal placental development. While the mechanisms underlying this regulation are not yet clear, they may involve the liberation of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and/or IGFs from IGFBPs. In contrast, there has been relatively little functional work examining PAPP-A or the IGFBP substrates of ADAM12 and PAPP-A. Understanding the functions of these markers and the mechanisms underlying their association with disease could improve screening strategies and enable the development of new therapeutic interventions. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Crosley E.J.,Simon Fraser University | Dunk C.E.,Lunenfeld Tanenbaum Research Institute | Beristain A.G.,University of British Columbia | Beristain A.G.,The Child and Family Research Institute | Christians J.K.,Simon Fraser University
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology

Background: Adverse gestational outcomes such as preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are associated with placental insufficiency. Normal placental development relies on the insulin-like growth factors -I and -II (IGF-I and -II), in part to stimulate trophoblast proliferation and extravillous trophoblast (EVT) migration. The insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) modulate the bioavailability of IGFs in various ways, including sequestration, potentiation, and/or increase in half-life. The roles of IGFBP-4 and -5 in the placenta are unknown, despite consistent associations between pregnancy complications and the levels of two IGFBP-4 and/or -5 proteases, pregnancy-associated plasma protein -A and -A2 (PAPP-A and PAPP-A2). The primary objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of IGFBP-4 and -5 on IGF-I and IGF-II in a model of EVT migration. A related objective was to determine the timing and location of IGFBP-4 and -5 expression in the placental villi. Methods: We used wound healing assays to examine the effects of IGFBP-4 and -5 on the migration of HTR-8/SVneo cells following 4 hours of serum starvation and 24 hours of treatment. Localization of IGFBP-4, -5 and PAPP-A2 was assessed by immunohistochemical staining of first trimester placental sections. Results: 2 nM IGF-I and -II each increased HTR-8/SVneo cell migration with IGF-I increasing migration significantly more than IGF-II. IGFBP-4 and -5 showed different levels of inhibition against IGF-I. 20 nM IGFBP-4 completely blocked the effects of 2 nM IGF-I, while 20 nM IGFBP-5 significantly reduced the effects of 2 nM IGF-I, but not to control levels. Either 20 nM IGFBP-4 or 20 nM IGFBP-5 completely blocked the effects of 2 nM IGF-II. Immunohistochemistry revealed co-localization of IGFBP-4, IGFBP-5 and PAPP-A2 in the syncytiotrophoblast layer of first trimester placental villi as early as 5 weeks of gestational age. Conclusions: IGFBP-4 and -5 show different levels of inhibition on the migration-stimulating effects of IGF-I and IGF-II, suggesting different roles for PAPP-A and PAPP-A2. Moreover, co-localization of the pappalysins and their substrates within placental villi suggests undescribed roles of these molecules in early placental development. © Crosley et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Aghababaei M.,University of British Columbia | Perdu S.,The Child and Family Research Institute | Irvine K.,The Child and Family Research Institute | Beristain A.G.,University of British Columbia | Beristain A.G.,The Child and Family Research Institute
Molecular Human Reproduction

During pregnancy, stromal- and vascular-remodeling trophoblasts serve critical roles in directing placental development acquiring pro-invasive characteristics. The A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase (ADAM) family of multifunctional proteins direct cellular processes across multiple organ systems via their intrinsic catalytic, cell adhesive and intracellular signaling properties. ADAM12, existing as two distinct splice variants (ADAM12L and ADAM12S), is highly expressed in the human placenta and promotes cell migration and invasion in several tumor cell lines; however, its role in trophoblast biology is unknown. In this study, ADAM12 was localized to anchoring trophoblast columns in first trimester placentas and to highly invasive extracellular matrix-degrading trophoblasts in placental villous explants. The importance of ADAM12 in directing trophoblast invasion was tested using loss-of and gain-of-function strategies, where siRNA-directed knockdown of ADAM12 inhibited trophoblast cell invasion while over-expression promoted migration and invasion in two trophoblastic cell models. In placental villous explant cultures, siRNA-directed loss of ADAM12 significantly dampened trophoblast column outgrowth. Additionally, we provide functional evidence for the ADAM12S variant in promoting trophoblast invasion and column outgrowth through a mechanism requiring its catalytic activity. This is the first study to assign a function for ADAM12 in trophoblast biology, where ADAM12 may play a central role regulating the behavior of invasive trophoblast subsets in early pregnancy. This study also underlines the importance of ADAM12L and ADAM12S in directing cell motility in normal developmental processes outside of cancer, specifically highlighting a potentially important function of ADAM12S in directing early placental development. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. Source

Cotton A.M.,University of British Columbia | Cotton A.M.,NRC Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences | Price E.M.,University of British Columbia | Price E.M.,The Child and Family Research Institute | And 10 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics

X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) achieves dosage compensation between males and females through the silencing of the majority of genes on one of the female X chromosomes. Thus, the female X chromosomes provide a unique opportunity to study euchromatin and heterochromatin of allelic regions within the same nuclear environment. We examined the interplay of DNA methylation (DNAm) with CpG density, transcriptional activity and chromatin state at genes on the X chromosome using over 1800 female samples analysed with the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip. DNAm was used to predict an inactivation status for 63 novel transcription start sites (TSSs) across 27 tissues. There was high concordance of inactivation status across tissues, with 62% of TSSs subject to XCI in all 27 tissues examined, whereas 9% escaped from XCI in all tissues, and the remainder showed variable escape from XCI between females in subsets of tissues. Inter-female and twin data supported a model of predominately cis-acting influences on inactivation status. The level of expression from the inactive X relative to the active X correlated with the amount of female promoter DNAm to a threshold of ~30%, beyond which genes were consistently subject to inactivation. The inactive X showed lower DNAm than the active X at intragenic and intergenic regions for genes subject to XCI, but not at genes that escape from inactivation. Our categorization of genes that escape from X inactivation provides candidates for sex-specific differences in disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. Source

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