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Wall D.M.,The Center for Process Innovation | Wu-Haan W.,Michigan State University | Safferman S.I.,Michigan State University
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2012

Solid residuals generated from dewatering food processing wastewater contain organic carbon that can potentially be reclaimed for energy through anaerobic digestion. This results in the diversion of waste from a landfill and uses it for a beneficial purpose. Dewatering the waste concentrates the carbon, reducing transportation costs to a farm digester where it can be blended with manure to increase biogas yield. Polymers are often used in the dewatering of the food waste but little is known regarding their impact on biogas production. Four 2 dm3 working volume, semi-continuous reactors, were used at a mesophilic temperature and a solids retention time (SRT) of 15 days. Reactors were fed daily with a blended feedstock containing a food processing sludge waste (FPSW)/manure ratio of 2.2:1 (by weight) as this produced the optimized carbon to nitrogen ratio. Results demonstrated that reconstitution of dewatered FPSW with dairy manure produced approximately 2 times more methane than animal manure alone for the same volume. However, only approximately 30% of volatile solids (VS) were consumed indicating energy potential still remained. Further, the efficiency of the conversion of VS to methane for the blended FPSW/manure was substantially less than for manure only. However, the overall result is an increase in energy production for a given tank volume, which can decrease life cycle costs. Because all FPSW is unique and the determination of dewatering additives is customized based on laboratory testing and field adjustment, generalizations are difficult and specific testing is required. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Collaborative Research & Development | Award Amount: 337.48K | Year: 2015

The project partners will integrate printed electronics (PE) and conventional (CE) solid state electronics in order to improve functionality, reduce cost and increase scalability of a photonics based medical device. New methods will be employed in order to produce luminaires, printed sensors and PE/PE or PE/CE interconnects. These will be combined with conventional electronics such as memory and processors to make the device smart and therefore ensure patient compliance with the treatment regime.

Abbott M.S.R.,Northumbria University | Abbott M.S.R.,The Center for Process Innovation | Valente Perez G.,The Center for Process Innovation | Harvey A.P.,Northumbria University | Theodorou M.K.,Harper Adams University College
Chemical Engineering Research and Design | Year: 2014

Enzymatic saccharification of pure α-cellulose was conducted in oscillatory baffled (OBR) and stirred tank (STR) reactors over a range of mixing intensities requiring power densities (P/V) from 0 to 250Watts per cubic metre (W/m3). Both reactor designs produced similar saccharification conversion rates at zero mixing. Conversion increased with increasing mixing intensity. The maximum conversion rate occurred at an oscillatory Reynolds number (Reo) of 600 in the OBR and at an impeller speed of between 185 and 350rpm in the STR. The OBR was able to achieve a maximum conversion rate at a much lower power density (2.36W/m3) than the STR (37.2-250W/m3). The OBR demonstrated a 94-99% decrease in the required power density to achieve maximum conversion rates and showed a 12% increase in glucose production after 24h at 2.36W/m3. © 2014 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Source

Abbott M.S.R.,Northumbria University | Abbott M.S.R.,The Center for Process Innovation | Harvey A.P.,Northumbria University | Valente Perez G.,The Center for Process Innovation | Theodorou M.K.,The Center for Process Innovation
Interface Focus | Year: 2013

The development of efficient and commercially viable bioprocesses is essential for reducing the need for fossil-derived products. Increasingly, pharmaceuticals, fuel, health products and precursor compounds for plastics are being synthesized using bioprocessing routes as opposed to more traditional chemical technologies. Production vessels or reactors are required for synthesis of crude product before downstream processing for extraction and purification. Reactors are operated either in discrete batches or, preferably, continuously in order to reduce waste, cost and energy. This review describes the oscillatory baffled reactor (OBR), which, generally, has a niche application in performing 'long' processes in plug flow conditions, and so should be suitable for various bioprocesses. We report findings to suggest that OBRs could increase reaction rates for specific bioprocesses owing to low shear, good global mixing and enhanced mass transfer compared with conventional reactors. By maintaining geometrical and dynamic conditions, the technology has been proved to be easily scaled up and operated continuously, allowing laboratory-scale results to be easily transferred to industrial-sized processes. This is the first comprehensive review of bioprocessing using OBRs. The barriers facing industrial adoption of the technology are discussed alongside some suggested strategies to overcome these barriers. OBR technology could prove to be a major aid in the development of commercially viable and sustainable bioprocesses, essential for moving towards a greener future. © 2012 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. Source

Abbott M.S.R.,Northumbria University | Abbott M.S.R.,The Center for Process Innovation | Brain C.M.,Northumbria University | Harvey A.P.,Northumbria University | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Engineering Science | Year: 2015

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CCAP 11/32C) cells were grown in liquid culture under photoautotrophic conditions using a photobioreactor (PBR) based on oscillatory baffled reactor (OBR) technology. A flotation effect was observed when using a porous gas sparger which resulted in accumulation of microalgae at the top of the column. Linear growth was achieved with a different sparger, designed to produce larger, faster rising gas bubbles. Changes in the mixing intensity had no effect on the maximum growth rate of 0.130OD750/day (±0.010) achieved which was 95% higher than that achieved in T-flasks of 0.067OD750/day (±0.011) under comparable conditions. The increase in growth rate achieved in the OBR was probably a result of increased gas transfer, and exponential growth was not achieved probably due to the relatively low light intensity used of 78μmol/m2s (±20). The results demonstrate the feasibility of OBR technology for use as PBRs with the potential for the duel culture and harvest of microalgal biomass through manipulation of the bubble diameter. This could greatly improve bioprocess economics for microalgae culture. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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