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Melton Mowbray, United Kingdom

Mosing M.,University of Zurich | German A.J.,University of Liverpool | Holden S.L.,University of Liverpool | MacFarlane P.,Langford Veterinary Services | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2013

This prospective clinical study examined the effect of obesity and subsequent weight loss on oxygenation and ventilation during deep sedation in pet dogs. Data from nine dogs completing a formalised weight loss programme were evaluated. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to quantify body fat mass prior to and after weight loss. Dogs were deeply sedated and positioned in dorsal recumbency. Sedation was scored using a semi-objective scheme. As part of the monitoring of sedation, arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) were measured after 10min in dorsal recumbency. Oxygen saturation of haemoglobin (SpO2) was monitored continuously using pulse oximetry, starting oxygen supplementation where indicated (SpO2<90%) via a face mask. Morphometric measurements were taken from DEXA images and compared before and after weight loss. Several oxygen indices were calculated and correlated with body fat variables evaluated by DEXA. All body fat variables improved significantly after weight loss. PaO2 increased from 27.9±19.2kPa to 34.8±24.4kPa, while FiO2 decreased from 0.74±0.31 to 0.66±0.35. Morphometric measurements improved significantly after weight loss. PaO2/FiO2 (inspired oxygen fraction) and Pa/AO2 (ratio of PaO2 to alveolar PO2) also improved significantly, but there was no change in f-shunt and PaCO2 after weight loss. On multiple linear regression analysis, all oxygen indices were negatively associated with thoracic fat percentage. In conclusion, obesity decreases oxygenation in dogs during deep sedation. Oxygenation status improves with successful weight loss, but ventilation is not influenced by obesity. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

German A.J.,University of Liverpool | Holden S.L.,University of Liverpool | Mason S.L.,University of Liverpool | Bryner C.,Royal Canin Schweiz AG | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2011

Many pet cats and dogs are fed dry extruded kibbled food by measuring cup, yet the precision and accuracy of this feeding strategy is not known. Over 12 studies, we assessed precision and accuracy of weighing out food portions, of various dry kibbled foods, by measuring cup. Poor precision was noted in all studies, with intra- and inter-subject coefficients of variation ranging from 2 to 13% and 2 to 28% respectively. Variable accuracy was also noted, which ranged from an 18% under-estimate to an 80% over-estimate in portion size. No specific factors were associated with imprecision, but the degree of inaccuracy was negatively associated with portion size (R=-0.67, p=0.022), and positively associated with the number of subjects participating in the study (R=0.60, p=0.048). This is the first study to document imprecision and inaccuracy of using measuring cups to estimate portions of extruded dry kibbled food. Over time, such errors could contribute to insidious weight gain in companion animals, potentially contributing to the development of obesity. Imprecision in measuring food portions could also contribute to failure of weight management programmes for obese animals. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

German A.J.,University of Liverpool | Holden S.L.,University of Liverpool | Morris P.J.,The Center for Pet Nutrition | Biourge V.,Royal Canin Research Center
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

Regain after weight loss is widely reported in humans, but there is little information on this phenomenon in dogs. The current study aim was to determine long-term success of a weight loss regime and those factors linked with regain. Thirty-three obese dogs, that had successfully lost weight, were included, all enrolled between December 2004 and May 2009. After weight loss, dogs were switched to a maintenance regime and follow-up weight checks were performed periodically. A review of cases that had completed their weight programme was held during the summer of 2010 and a follow-up check was subsequently conducted, where dogs were reweighed and information was collected on current feeding practices.Median duration of follow-up was 640. days (119-1828. days). Fourteen dogs (42%) maintained weight, 3 (9%) lost >5% additional weight, and 16 (48%) gained >5% weight. Dogs fed a purpose-formulated weight loss diet regained less weight than those switched onto a standard maintenance diet (P= 0.0016). Energy intake at the time of follow-up was significantly higher in those dogs fed a standard maintenance diet, compared with those that had remained on a purpose-formulated weight loss diet (P= 0.017). These results suggest that weight regain occurs in about half of dogs after successful weight loss. Long-term use of a purpose-formulated weight management diet can significantly limit regain in the follow-up period, likely by limiting food intake. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

German A.J.,University of Liverpool | Holden S.L.,University of Liverpool | Wiseman-Orr M.L.,University of Glasgow | Reid J.,University of Glasgow | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

Obesity is thought to affect quality of life, but limited objective data exist to support this supposition. The current study aim was to use a questionnaire to determine health-related quality of life (HRQOL) both before and after weight loss, in obese client-owned dogs. Fifty obese dogs were included, and represented a variety of breeds and genders. Prior to weight loss, owners were asked to complete a validated standardised questionnaire to determine HRQOL. Thirty of the dogs successfully completed their weight loss programme and reached target, and owners then completed a follow-up questionnaire. The completed questionnaire responses were transformed to scores corresponding to each of four factors (vitality, emotional disturbance, anxiety and pain), and scored on a scale of 0-6. Changes in the scores were used to explore the sensitivity of the questionnaire, and scores were correlated with responses to direct questions about quality of life and pain, as well as weight loss. Dogs that failed to complete their weight loss programme had lower vitality and higher emotional disturbance scores than those successfully losing weight (P= 0.03 for both). In the 30 dogs that completed, weight loss led to an increased vitality score (P< 0.001), and decreased scores for both emotional disturbance (P< 0.001) and pain (P< 0.001). However, there was no change in anxiety (P= 0.09). The change in vitality score was positively associated with percentage weight loss (rP= 0.43, P= 0.02) and percentage body fat loss (rP= 0.39, P= 0.03). These results indicate demonstrable improvement in HRQOL for obese dogs that successfully lose weight. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Tvarijonaviciute A.,University of Murcia | Ceron J.J.,University of Murcia | Holden S.L.,University of Liverpool | Cuthbertson D.J.,University of Liverpool | And 3 more authors.
BMC Veterinary Research | Year: 2012

Background: Recently, metabolic syndrome (MS) has gained attention in human metabolic medicine given its associations with development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Canine obesity is associated with the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and mild hypertension, but the authors are not aware of any existing studies examining the existence or prevalence of MS in obese dogs.Thirty-five obese dogs were assessed before and after weight loss (median percentage loss 29%, range 10-44%). The diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation were modified in order to define canine obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD), which included a measure of adiposity (using a 9-point body condition score [BCS]), systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma cholesterol, plasma triglyceride, and fasting plasma glucose. By way of comparison, total body fat mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, whilst total adiponectin, fasting insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured using validated assays.Results: Systolic blood pressure (P = 0.008), cholesterol (P = 0.003), triglyceride (P = 0.018), and fasting insulin (P < 0.001) all decreased after weight loss, whilst plasma total adiponectin increased (P = 0.001). However, hsCRP did not change with weight loss. Prior to weight loss, 7 dogs were defined as having ORMD, and there was no difference in total fat mass between these dogs and those who did not meet the criteria for ORMD. However, plasma adiponectin concentration was less (P = 0.031), and plasma insulin concentration was greater (P = 0.030) in ORMD dogs.Conclusions: In this study, approximately 20% of obese dogs suffer from ORMD, and this is characterized by hypoadiponectinaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. These studies can form the basis of further investigations to determine path genetic mechanisms and the health significance for dogs, in terms of disease associations and outcomes of weight loss. © 2012 Tvarijonaviciute et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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