Melton Mowbray, United Kingdom
Melton Mowbray, United Kingdom

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PubMed | University of Chester, The Center for Pet Nutrition, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen Of La Arrixaca Hcuva and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: BMC veterinary research | Year: 2016

Approximately 20% of obese dogs have metabolic disturbances similar to those observed in human metabolic syndrome, a condition known as obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. This condition is associated with insulin resistance and decreased circulating adiponectin concentrations, but clinical consequences have not been reported. In order to define better the metabolic changes associated with obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD), we compared the plasma proteomes of obese dogs with and without ORMD. A proteomic analysis was conducted on plasma samples from 8 obese male dogs, 4 with ORMD and 4 without ORMD. The samples were first treated for the depletion of high-abundance proteins and subsequently analysed by using 2-DE DIGE methodology.Using mass spectrometry, 12 proteins were identified: albumin, apoliprotein A-I, C2, C3, C5, C4BPA, A2M, Uncharacterised protein (Fragment) OS=Canis familiaris, fibrinogen, IGJ, ITIH2, and glutathione peroxidase. In obese dogs with ORMD, the relative amounts of ten proteins (albumin, apoliprotein A-I, C2, C3, C5, C4BPA, A2M, Uncharacterised protein (Fragment) OS=Canis familiaris, fibrinogen, and ITIH2) were increased and two proteins (IGJ and glutathione peroxidase) were decreased, compared with obese dogs without ORMD. Specific assays were then used to confirm differences in serum albumin, apoliprotein A-I and glutathione peroxidase in a separate group of 20 overweight dogs, 8 with ORMD and 12 without ORMD.The current study provides evidence that, in obese dogs with ORMD, there are changes in expression of proteins involved in lipid metabolism, immune response, and antioxidant status. The clinical significance of these changes remains to be defined.


PubMed | RAS Institute of Cytology and Genetics, The Center for Pet Nutrition, University Utrecht, University of Groningen and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Disease models & mechanisms | Year: 2016

The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to Wilson disease, which is characterized by a predominantly hepatic copper accumulation. The low incidence and the phenotypic variability of human copper toxicosis hamper identification of causal genes or modifier genes involved in the disease pathogenesis. The Labrador retriever was recently characterized as a new canine model for copper toxicosis. Purebred dogs have reduced genetic variability, which facilitates identification of genes involved in complex heritable traits that might influence phenotype in both humans and dogs. We performed a genome-wide association study in 235 Labrador retrievers and identified two chromosome regions containing ATP7A and ATP7B that were associated with variation in hepatic copper levels. DNA sequence analysis identified missense mutations in each gene. The amino acid substitution ATP7B:p.Arg1453Gln was associated with copper accumulation, whereas the amino acid substitution ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile partly protected against copper accumulation. Confocal microscopy indicated that aberrant copper metabolism upon expression of the ATP7B variant occurred because of mis-localization of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Dermal fibroblasts derived from ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile dogs showed copper accumulation and delayed excretion. We identified the Labrador retriever as the first natural, non-rodent model for ATP7B-associated copper toxicosis. Attenuation of copper accumulation by the ATP7A mutation sheds an interesting light on the interplay of copper transporters in body copper homeostasis and warrants a thorough investigation of ATP7A as a modifier gene in copper-metabolism disorders. The identification of two new functional variants in ATP7A and ATP7B contributes to the biological understanding of protein function, with relevance for future development of therapy.


PubMed | University College Birmingham and The Center for Pet Nutrition
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical periodontology | Year: 2016

Inflammatory periodontal disease is widespread in dogs. This study evaluated site-specific changes in the canine gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) proteome during longitudinal progression from very mild gingivitis to mild periodontitis. Periodontitis diagnosis in dogs requires general anaesthesia with associated risks and costs; our ultimate aim was to develop a periodontitis diagnostic for application in conscious dogs. The objective of this work was to identify potential biomarkers of periodontal disease progression in dogs.Gingival crevicular fluid was sampled from a total of 10 teeth in eight dogs at three different stages of health/disease and samples prepared for quantitative mass spectrometry (data available via ProteomeXchange; identifier PXD003337). A univariate mixed model analysis determined significantly altered proteins between health states and six were evaluated by ELISA.Four hundred and six proteins were identified with 84 present in all samples. The prevalence of 40 proteins was found to be significantly changed in periodontitis relative to gingivitis. ELISA measurements confirmed that haptoglobin was significantly increased.This study demonstrates for the first time that proteins detected by mass spectrometry have potential to identify novel biomarkers for canine periodontal disease. Further work is required to validate additional biomarkers for a periodontitis diagnostic.


Marshall M.D.,The Center for Pet Nutrition | Wallis C.V.,The Center for Pet Nutrition | Milella L.,The Veterinary Dental Surgery | Colyer A.,The Center for Pet Nutrition | And 2 more authors.
BMC Veterinary Research | Year: 2014

Background: Periodontal disease (PD) is the most widespread oral disease in dogs and has been associated with serious systemic diseases. The disease is more prevalent in small breeds compared to large breeds and incidence increases with advancing age. In prevalence studies 84% of beagles over the age of 3 and 100% of poodles over the age of 4 were diagnosed with PD. Current knowledge of the rate of progression of PD is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the rate of PD progression in miniature schnauzers, an at risk small breed of dog. Dogs (n = 52, age 1.3-6.9 years) who had received a regular oral care regime prior to this study were assessed for levels of gingivitis and periodontitis around the whole gingival margin in every tooth under general anaesthetic. Assessments were conducted approximately every six weeks for up to 60 weeks following the cessation of the oral care regime. Results: All of the 2155 teeth assessed entered the study with some level of gingivitis. 23 teeth entered the study with periodontitis, observed across 12 dogs aged between 1.3 and 6.9 years. 35 dogs had at least 12 teeth progress to periodontitis within 60 weeks. Of the teeth that progressed to periodontitis, 54% were incisors. The lingual aspect of the incisors was significantly more likely to be affected (p < 0.001). The severity of gingivitis in periodontitis-affected teeth was variable with 24% of the aspects affected having very mild gingivitis, 36% mild gingivitis and 40% moderate gingivitis. Periodontitis progression rate was significantly faster in older dogs. Only one dog (age 3.5) did not have any teeth progress to periodontitis after 60 weeks. Conclusions: This is the first study to have assessed the progression rate of periodontitis in miniature schnauzers and highlights that with no oral care regime, the early stages of periodontitis develop rapidly in this breed. An oral care regime and twice yearly veterinary dental health checks should be provided from an early age for this breed and other breeds with similar periodontitis incidence rates. © 2014 Marshall et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Tvarijonaviciute A.,University of Murcia | Ceron J.J.,University of Murcia | Holden S.L.,University of Liverpool | Cuthbertson D.J.,University of Liverpool | And 3 more authors.
BMC Veterinary Research | Year: 2012

Background: Recently, metabolic syndrome (MS) has gained attention in human metabolic medicine given its associations with development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Canine obesity is associated with the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and mild hypertension, but the authors are not aware of any existing studies examining the existence or prevalence of MS in obese dogs.Thirty-five obese dogs were assessed before and after weight loss (median percentage loss 29%, range 10-44%). The diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation were modified in order to define canine obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD), which included a measure of adiposity (using a 9-point body condition score [BCS]), systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma cholesterol, plasma triglyceride, and fasting plasma glucose. By way of comparison, total body fat mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, whilst total adiponectin, fasting insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured using validated assays.Results: Systolic blood pressure (P = 0.008), cholesterol (P = 0.003), triglyceride (P = 0.018), and fasting insulin (P < 0.001) all decreased after weight loss, whilst plasma total adiponectin increased (P = 0.001). However, hsCRP did not change with weight loss. Prior to weight loss, 7 dogs were defined as having ORMD, and there was no difference in total fat mass between these dogs and those who did not meet the criteria for ORMD. However, plasma adiponectin concentration was less (P = 0.031), and plasma insulin concentration was greater (P = 0.030) in ORMD dogs.Conclusions: In this study, approximately 20% of obese dogs suffer from ORMD, and this is characterized by hypoadiponectinaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. These studies can form the basis of further investigations to determine path genetic mechanisms and the health significance for dogs, in terms of disease associations and outcomes of weight loss. © 2012 Tvarijonaviciute et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


German A.J.,University of Liverpool | Holden S.L.,University of Liverpool | Wiseman-Orr M.L.,University of Glasgow | Reid J.,University of Glasgow | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

Obesity is thought to affect quality of life, but limited objective data exist to support this supposition. The current study aim was to use a questionnaire to determine health-related quality of life (HRQOL) both before and after weight loss, in obese client-owned dogs. Fifty obese dogs were included, and represented a variety of breeds and genders. Prior to weight loss, owners were asked to complete a validated standardised questionnaire to determine HRQOL. Thirty of the dogs successfully completed their weight loss programme and reached target, and owners then completed a follow-up questionnaire. The completed questionnaire responses were transformed to scores corresponding to each of four factors (vitality, emotional disturbance, anxiety and pain), and scored on a scale of 0-6. Changes in the scores were used to explore the sensitivity of the questionnaire, and scores were correlated with responses to direct questions about quality of life and pain, as well as weight loss. Dogs that failed to complete their weight loss programme had lower vitality and higher emotional disturbance scores than those successfully losing weight (P= 0.03 for both). In the 30 dogs that completed, weight loss led to an increased vitality score (P< 0.001), and decreased scores for both emotional disturbance (P< 0.001) and pain (P< 0.001). However, there was no change in anxiety (P= 0.09). The change in vitality score was positively associated with percentage weight loss (rP= 0.43, P= 0.02) and percentage body fat loss (rP= 0.39, P= 0.03). These results indicate demonstrable improvement in HRQOL for obese dogs that successfully lose weight. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


German A.J.,University of Liverpool | Holden S.L.,University of Liverpool | Morris P.J.,The Center for Pet Nutrition | Biourge V.,Royal Canin Research Center
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

Regain after weight loss is widely reported in humans, but there is little information on this phenomenon in dogs. The current study aim was to determine long-term success of a weight loss regime and those factors linked with regain. Thirty-three obese dogs, that had successfully lost weight, were included, all enrolled between December 2004 and May 2009. After weight loss, dogs were switched to a maintenance regime and follow-up weight checks were performed periodically. A review of cases that had completed their weight programme was held during the summer of 2010 and a follow-up check was subsequently conducted, where dogs were reweighed and information was collected on current feeding practices.Median duration of follow-up was 640. days (119-1828. days). Fourteen dogs (42%) maintained weight, 3 (9%) lost >5% additional weight, and 16 (48%) gained >5% weight. Dogs fed a purpose-formulated weight loss diet regained less weight than those switched onto a standard maintenance diet (P= 0.0016). Energy intake at the time of follow-up was significantly higher in those dogs fed a standard maintenance diet, compared with those that had remained on a purpose-formulated weight loss diet (P= 0.017). These results suggest that weight regain occurs in about half of dogs after successful weight loss. Long-term use of a purpose-formulated weight management diet can significantly limit regain in the follow-up period, likely by limiting food intake. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


O'Haire M.E.,University of Queensland | McKenzie S.J.,University of Queensland | McCune S.,The Center for Pet Nutrition | Slaughter V.,University of Queensland
Anthrozoos | Year: 2013

This study investigated the effects of a classroom-based animalassisted activities (AAA) program with guinea pigs on the social functioning of primary school children. We hypothesized that participants in the experimental condition (n = 64), compared with a waitlist control group (n = 64), would demonstrate improvements in social functioning following the program. parents and teachers used the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) to evaluate the social skills and problem behaviors of 128 participating children (age range = 4.8 to 12.7 years) before and after an 8-week period. Teachers also rated academic competence at both time points. Children who participated in the AAA program demonstrated significantly greater improvements in social functioning than their control group peers, as defined by greater increases in social skills (teacher SSRS) and decreases in problem behaviors (parent and teacher SSRS). There were no significant differences between the groups in academic competence. AAA participants demonstrated significant increases in social skills and decreases in problem behaviors from pre- to post-program on the teacher version of the SSRS. Control group participants did not show significant changes on these measures. These findings suggest that an AAA program with guinea pigs may be a feasible addition to the primary school classroom in order to improve social functioning. Further component analysis will be necessary to determine whether the animal is the active ingredient in AAA programs of this nature. © ISAZ 2013.


PubMed | University of Leicester and The Center for Pet Nutrition
Type: | Journal: The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology | Year: 2016

Periodontal disease is one of the most important health concerns for companion animals. Research into canine forms of periodontitis has focused on the identification and characterization of the bacterial communities present. However, other microorganisms are known to inhabit the oral cavity and could also influence the disease process. A novel, broad spectrum 18S PCR was developed and used, in conjunction with next-generation sequencing analyses to target the identification of protists. Trichomonas sp. and Entamoeba sp. were identified from 92 samples of canine plaque. The overall prevalence of trichomonads was 56.52% (52/92) and entamoebae was 4.34% (4/92). Next-generation sequencing of pooled healthy, gingivitis, early-stage periodontitis, and severe periodontitis samples revealed the proportion of trichomonad sequences to be 3.51% (health), 2.84% (gingivitis), 6.07% (early periodontitis), and 35.04% (severe periodontitis), respectively, and entamoebae to be 0.01% (health), 0.01% (gingivitis), 0.80% (early-stage periodontitis), and 7.91% (severe periodontitis) respectively. Both genera of protists were statistically associated with plaque from dogs with periodontal disease. These findings provide the first conclusive evidence for the presence of oral protozoa in dog plaque and suggest a possible role for protozoa in the periodontal disease process.

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