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Yasmi Y.,The Center for People and Forests | Kelley L.C.,University of California at Berkeley | Enters T.,United Nations Environment Programme UNEP
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2013

Community-outsider conflict is widespread in Southeast Asia with important consequences for people and forests. Understanding the causes and impacts of community-outsider conflict can provide important insights into improving forest governance. This study analyzes seven community-outsider conflicts from five countries in Southeast Asia. All cases involved local communities in conflict with external actors (e.g. logging and mining companies, plantation estates and conservation agencies). Our findings from these cases suggest that conflict often arises as a result of contested tenure, exclusionary economic development and conservation policies, and a lack of coordination among state agencies related to land-use planning. This study underlines the complex nature of conflict, which often involves not only material issues but also deep cultural connections between communities and their land. Conflict impacts were usually very negative and included fear, anxiety, distrust, division between social groups, and high economic and environmental costs. To a limited extent, conflict impacts were also positive, such as where conflict strengthened collective action at a community level and/or increased awareness of the need to clarify tenure. The study provides a number of practical suggestions to address community-outsider conflict and improve forest governance in Southeast Asia. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Gritten D.,Center Tecnologic Forestal Of Catalonia | Gritten D.,The Center for People and Forests | Gonzalez Olabarria J.R.,Center Tecnologic Forestal Of Catalonia | Mola-Yudego B.,University of Eastern Finland | Dominguez G.,Center Tecnologic Forestal Of Catalonia
Forest Systems | Year: 2012

Campaigns by environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs) can have far reaching consequences in determining the policies of governments and corporations. This paper examines campaigns targeting forestry companies to determine what makes a successful campaign. Over forty ENGOs completed a questionnaire defining what they perceive to constitute a successful campaign. The responses were analysed using Analytical Hierarchy Process. The results showed that campaigns by ENGOs have two main targets: changes in laws and the target group implementing the campaign's recommendation(s). Achieving these targets, for most, constitute a successful campaign. Subsequently, representatives of seven ENGOs were questioned to attain their perspectives of the results in comparison to campaigns they are conducting against forest enterprises. They supported the results of the questionnaire, but also felt that there are various other factors that need to be considered (e.g. the campaign's timeframe and the possibility of having hidden targets) that increase the issue's complexity. Source

Skutsch M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Skutsch M.,Sustainable Development Technology | Vickers B.,The Center for People and Forests | Georgiadou Y.,University of Twente | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2011

Many tropical developing countries are considering using a form of Payments for Environmental Services (PES) to reward communities involved in Community Forest Management (CFM) for reducing carbon emissions and increasing carbon sequestration. Such payments would fall under the scope of national Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) programmes which will claim carbon credits or funding under future provisions of the UNFCCC (2009a). However, the implications of different systems of payment to communities have scarcely been considered. We suggest that there are at least three different bases on which payment could be made: payments for management inputs, for carbon outputs or for opportunity costs incurred. Almost all current PES systems involving communities are input payment based, although there are also a few proto-opportunity cost models; however it is usually assumed that carbon projects under REDD+ will be output (performance) based. We compare these three payment models with reference to criteria derived from the Polis model of public policy inducement (Stone, 2002), which facilitates a real world analysis in which the objectives of actors at different levels (international purchasers of carbon credits, national policy makers, intermediate agencies and local communities) and their interactions are considered. We conclude that output based payments may not be optimal for inducement of CFM carbon emission reduction and sequestration in national REDD+ programmes. We propose a system based on paying communities to measure and monitor their forest carbon stock, which could be combined with either input conditionalities or a bonus for good performance. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Yasmi Y.,The Center for People and Forests | Kelley L.,University of California at Berkeley | Murdiyarso D.,Bogor Agricultural University | Patel T.,The Center for People and Forests
International Forestry Review | Year: 2012

The management of Asia's forests affects diverse stakeholders and interests, inevitably resulting in conflict. This study focuses on conflicts between local communities and outsiders: the underlying causes, conflict management approaches, and eventual outcomes. Field data was collected through interviews and focus group discussions in seven community-outsider conflict cases across five countries. While many direct conflict triggers were observed, at least three underlying and interrelated factors enabled conflict: contested statutory and customary tenure, exclusionary conservation and economic development policies, and poor coordination between land use planning agencies. The range of observed conflict management techniques (negotiation, mediation, coercion, avoidance) reflected varying power relationships and political contexts. The techniques' success in all cases was relatively low due to the complexity of addressing tenure and exclusion issues. The results underline the need to involve local people in the design of the evolving REDD+ mechanism, as well as to ensure their rights and benefits. Source

Aung T.T.,Yokohama National University | Mochida Y.,Yokohama National University | Than M.M.,The Center for People and Forests
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2013

Mangroves in the Ayeyarwady Mega Delta of Myanmar are crucial for the ecology, society and economy of this country. At the beginning of May 2008, a severe cyclonic storm, Cyclone Nargis, struck the Ayeyarwady mangroves. Since that time, the present long-term study has been exploring the dynamics of post-cyclone mangrove vegetation. Every year since the 2008 cyclone, a census has been taken of 60 permanent plots (each measuring 10. m. ×. 10. m) in six mangrove communities in order to predict trends in their long-term recovery. Each selected mangrove community was dominated by either . Avicennia officinalis, . Bruguiera sexangula, . Excoecaria agallocha, . Heritiera fomes, . Rhizophora apiculata, or . Sonneratia caseolaris. Mortality among the Rhizophoraceae group, including . B. sexangula and . R. apiculata adult individuals, was more than 90%, whereas for other species belonging to the non-Rhizophoraceae group, it was less than 20%. Based on the 5-year assessment, the mangroves showed considerable resilience after the catastrophic cyclone disturbance. However, the recovery potential of specific species varied. In particular, communities where . R. apiculata dominated demonstrated slow recovery processes. The reasons for the vulnerability of this species of . Rhizophora to cyclone disturbance is assumed to be the result of three indirect post-cyclone consequences: high mortality caused by limited sprouting ability after wind-induced disturbance; erosion that occurred in the stressful habitat on riverbank mud flats with frequent tidal inundation; and delayed phenology after the catastrophic disturbance. The attempt to generalise the recovery rate of mangroves based on the crown closure of the six dominant mangrove communities explored in this study showed a recovery rate of 61.06% during the 4. years after Cyclone Nargis. The demonstration of these patterns and processes among the most dominant mangrove species after the cyclone disturbance should therefore provide reliable information to forest managers, ecologists and local people, helping them make management decisions regarding measures for mangrove restoration. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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