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Blanck H.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Thompson O.M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Nebeling L.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Yaroch A.L.,The Center for Human Nutrition
Preventing Chronic Disease | Year: 2011

Improvements to the food environment including new store development and more farm-to-consumer approaches (ie, farmers' markets, roadside stands, pick-your-own produce farms, or community-supported agriculture programs) may aid Americans in making healthier dietary choices. We analyzed data from a subset of respondents (N = 1,994) in the National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey, a mail survey of US adults. We determined associations between primary grocery shoppers' region and sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of purchasing fruits and vegetables in the summer from farm-to-consumer venues. A little more than one-quarter (27%) of grocery shoppers reported a frequency of at least weekly use of farm-to-consumer approaches. Older adults and respondents who live in the Northeast were most likely to shop farm-to-consumer venues at least weekly, and no differences were found by sex, race/ethnicity, education, or annual household income. These findings suggest that farm-to-consumer venues are used by many Americans and could be expanded to increase access to fruits and vegetables.


Thompson O.M.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Yaroch A.L.,The Center for Human Nutrition | Moser R.P.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Finney Rutten L.J.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Agurs-Collins T.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Journal of School Health | Year: 2010

Background: Competitive foods are often available in school vending machines. Providing youth with access to school vending machines, and thus competitive foods, is of concern, considering the continued high prevalence of childhood obesity: competitive foods tend to be energy dense and nutrient poor and can contribute to increased energy intake in children and adolescents.METHODS: To evaluate the relationship between school vending machine purchasing behavior and school vending machine access and individual-level dietary characteristics, we used population-level YouthStyles 2005 survey data to compare nutrition-related policy and behavioral characteristics by the number of weekly vending machine purchases made by public school children and adolescents (N = 869). Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using age- and race/ethnicity-adjusted logistic regression models that were weighted on age and sex of child, annual household income, head of household age, and race/ethnicity of the adult in study. Data were collected in 2005 and analyzed in 2008.RESULTS: Compared to participants who did not purchase from a vending machine, participants who purchased ≥3 days/week were more likely to (1) have unrestricted access to a school vending machine (OR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.13-2.59); (2) consume regular soda and chocolate candy ≥1 time/day (OR = 3.21; 95% CI = 1.87-5.51 and OR = 2.71; 95% CI = 1.34-5.46, respectively); and (3) purchase pizza or fried foods from a school cafeteria ≥1 day/week (OR = 5.05; 95% CI = 3.10-8.22).CONCLUSIONS: Future studies are needed to establish the contribution that the school-nutrition environment makes on overall youth dietary intake behavior, paying special attention to health disparities between whites and nonwhites. © Published 2010.


Shaikh A.R.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Vinokur A.D.,University of Michigan | Yaroch A.L.,The Center for Human Nutrition | Williams G.C.,University of Rochester | Resnicow K.,University of Michigan
Health Education and Behavior | Year: 2011

This study tested the effects of two theory-based interventions to increase fruit and vegetable intake.Hypothesized intervention mediators included self-efficacy (SE), social support (SS), autonomous motivation (AM), and controlled motivation (CM).At baseline, 1,021 African American adults were recruited from 16 churches randomized to one comparison and two intervention groups: Group 1 (standard educational materials), Group 2 (culturally targeted materials), and Group 3 (culturally targeted materials and telephone-based motivational interviewing).A well-fitted model based on structural equation modeling-χ 2(df=541, N=353,325)=864.28, p<.001, normed fit index=.96,nonnormed fit index=.98, comparative fit index =.98,root mean square error of approximation=.042-demonstrated that AM was both a significant mediator and moderator.In the subgroup with low baseline AM, AM mediated 17% of the effect of the Group 3 intervention on fruit and vegetable intake.Conversely, SS, SE, and CM were not significant mediators.Implications related to theory and intervention development are discussed. © 2011 by SOPHE.


Rutten L.F.,The Center for Human Nutrition | Yaroch A.L.,The Center for Human Nutrition | Story M.,University of Minnesota
Journal of Hunger and Environmental Nutrition | Year: 2011

This research briefly describes a conceptual model of hunger and food insecurity that utilizes integrative conceptual work on food systems, identifying key food subsystems and processes involved in the transformation of environmental inputs into individual and population health outcomes. Our model identifies system and individual- level barriers affecting the primary food subsystems, with emphasis on factors influencing the consumer subsystem that may lead to food insecurity. Focusing on food system vulnerabilities and system- and individual-level barriers influencing the consumer subsystem facilitates a more systematic and organized conceptual framework to guide research, practice, and policy relevant to food systems and food security. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Finney Rutten L.J.,Mayo Medical School | Yaroch A.L.,The Center for Human Nutrition | Pinard C.A.,The Center for Human Nutrition | Story M.,University of Minnesota
Journal of Hunger and Environmental Nutrition | Year: 2013

Existing nutrition assistance programs are often underutilized. Efforts are needed to improve awareness, access, and participation in available programs. We describe social marketing as a promising approach for raising awareness and use of nutrition assistance programs. As background to this public health imperative, we summarize trends in food insecurity and current use of existing federal nutrition assistance programs. We introduce social marketing as a possible approach to engage stakeholders in efforts to connect at-risk populations with existing resources. The tenants and processes of social marketing are described and applied to federal nutrition assistance programs. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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