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Bowdin S.,The Hospital for Sick Children | Bowdin S.,The Center for Genetic Medicine | Bowdin S.,University of Toronto | Ray P.N.,The Center for Genetic Medicine | And 7 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2014

Our increasing knowledge of how genomic variants affect human health and the falling costs of whole-genome sequencing are driving the development of individualized genetic medicine. This new clinical paradigm uses knowledge of an individual's genomic variants to guide health care decisions throughout life, to anticipate, diagnose, and manage disease. While individualized genetic medicine offers the promise of transformative change in health care, it forces us to reconsider existing ethical, scientific, and clinical paradigms. The potential benefits of presymptomatic identification of at risk individuals, improved diagnostics, individualized therapy, accurate prognosis, and avoidance of adverse drug reactions coexist with the potential risks of uninterpretable results, psychological harm, outmoded counseling models, and increased health care costs. Here, we review the challenges of integrating genomic analysis into clinical practice and describe a prototype for implementing genetic medicine. Our multidisciplinary team of bioinformaticians, health economists, ethicists, geneticists, genetic counselors, and clinicians has designed a "Genome Clinic" research project that addresses multiple challenges in genomic medicine-ranging from the development of bioinformatics tools for the clinical assessment of genomic variants and the discovery of disease genes to health policy inquiries, assessment of clinical care models, patient preference, and the ethics of consent. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

Anderson J.A.,The Hospital for Sick Children | Anderson J.A.,University of Toronto | Hayeems R.Z.,Child Health Evaluative science | Hayeems R.Z.,University of Toronto | And 13 more authors.
Clinical Genetics | Year: 2015

The publication of the ACMG recommendations has reignited the debate over predictive testing for adult-onset disorders in minors. Response has been polarized. With this in mind, we review and critically analyze this debate. First, we identify long-standing inconsistencies between consensus guidelines and clinical practice regarding risk assessment for adult-onset genetic disorders in children using family history and molecular analysis. Second, we discuss the disparate assumptions regarding the nature of whole genome and exome sequencing underlying arguments of both supporters and critics, and the role these assumptions play in the arguments for and against reporting. Third, we suggest that implicit differences regarding the definition of best interests of the child underlie disparate conclusions as to the best interests of children in this context. We conclude by calling for clarity and consensus concerning the central foci of this debate. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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