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Balgi A.D.,University of British Columbia | Wang J.,University of California at San Francisco | Cheng D.Y.H.,University of British Columbia | Ma C.,Northwestern University | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The M2 proton channel of the influenza A virus is the target of the anti-influenza drugs amantadine and rimantadine. The effectiveness of these drugs has been dramatically limited by the rapid spread of drug resistant mutations, mainly at sites S31N, V27A and L26F in the pore of the channel. Despite progress in designing inhibitors of V27A and L26F M2, there are currently no drugs targeting these mutated channels in clinical trials. Progress in developing new drugs has been hampered by the lack of a robust assay with sufficient throughput for discovery of new active chemotypes among chemical libraries and sufficient sensitivity to provide the SAR data essential for their improvement and development as drugs. In this study we adapted a yeast growth restoration assay, in which expression of the M2 channel inhibits yeast growth and exposure to an M2 channel inhibitor restores growth, into a robust and sensitive high-throughput screen for M2 channel inhibitors. A screen of over 250,000 pure chemicals and semi-purified fractions from natural extracts identified 21 active compounds comprising amantadine, rimantadine, 13 related adamantanes and 6 non-adamantanes. Of the non-adamantanes, hexamethylene amiloride and a triazine derivative represented new M2 inhibitory chemotypes that also showed antiviral activity in a plaque reduction assay. Of particular interest is the fact that the triazine derivative was not sufficiently potent for detection as an inhibitor in the traditional two electrode voltage clamp assay for M2 channel activity, but its discovery in the yeast assay led to testing of analogues of which one was as potent as amantadine. © 2013 Balgi et al.


PubMed | York University, The Center for Drug Research and Development, University of Toronto and Tulane University Medical Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Diabetologia | Year: 2016

Regular exercise is at the cornerstone of care in type 1 diabetes. However, relative hyperinsulinaemia and a blunted glucagon response to exercise promote hypoglycaemia. Recently, a selective antagonist of somatostatin receptor 2, PRL-2903, was shown to improve glucagon counterregulation to hypoglycaemia in resting streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of PRL-2903 in enhancing glucagon counterregulation during repeated hyperinsulinaemic exercise.Diabetic rats performed daily exercise for 1week and were then exposed to saline (154mmol/l NaCl) or PRL-2903, 10mg/kg, before hyperinsulinaemic exercise on two separate occasions spaced 1day apart. In the following week, animals crossed over to the alternate treatment for a third hyperinsulinaemic exercise protocol.Liver glycogen content was lower in diabetic rats compared with control rats, despite daily insulin therapy (p<0.05). Glucagon levels failed to increase during exercise with saline but increased three-to-six fold with PRL-2903 (all p<0.05). Glucose concentrations tended to be higher during exercise and early recovery with PRL-2903 on both days of treatment; this difference did not achieve statistical significance (p>0.05).PRL-2903 improves glucagon counterregulation during exercise. However, liver glycogen stores or other factors limit the prevention of exercise-induced hypoglycaemia in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.


Pandey R.,University of British Columbia | Jackson J.K.,University of British Columbia | Mugabe C.,The Center for Drug Research and Development | Liggins R.,The Center for Drug Research and Development | Burt H.M.,University of British Columbia
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2016

Purpose: Recently, efficacy studies in mice have shown that amine-terminated cationic (CNP) nanoparticulate carriers of DTX offer an improved formulation of the drug for intravesical delivery. It is hypothesized that this improved efficacy may arise from a carrier mediated bladder exfoliation process that removes the urothelial barrier allowing for increased drug uptake into bladder tissue. The objective of this study was to investigate exfoliation processes in fresh pig’s bladders (ex vivo) exposed to three cationic polyglycerols with increasing degrees of amination (denoted 350, 580 and 780). The study also compared the tissue depth profile of DTX uptake into these tissues using these different carriers. Materials and Methods: Aminated polyglycerols were synthesized and characterized in the laboratory with low (CNP-360), medium (CNP-580) and high (CNP-780) levels of amine content. CNP-based DTX solutions and commercial DTX solutions in polysorbate 80 (Taxotere®) were doped with 3H-radiolabeled DTX and prepared by solvent evaporation from acetonitrile, followed by drying and reconstitution in pH 6.4 buffer. Sections of fresh pig’s bladder tissue were clamped into Franz diffusion cells and the urothelial side was exposed to the DTX solutions for 2 h. Tissue sections were then frozen for sectioning by cryotome sectioning and subsequently processed for drug analysis by liquid scintillation counting. Alternatively tissue sections were fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde and 2% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate buffer for the purposes of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: Exposure of the urothelial surface to the amine-terminated polyglycerol solutions resulted in the exfoliation of bladder tissues in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Exfoliation was significantly more pronounced when using CNPs with a medium or high levels of amination whereas only minor levels of exfoliation were seen with low levels. Following incubation of tissues in Tween-based commercial formulations (Taxotere) of DTX (0.5 mg/mL) the drug was detectable at low levels (10–40 μg/g tissue) in all depths of tissue. Similar drug uptake was observed using the CNP-360 formulation. However drug uptake levels were increased to 60–100 μg/g tissue when samples were incubated with either the CNP-580 or CNP-780 formulations. Conclusion: The use of cationic polyglycerols with higher levels of amine termination allows for an enhanced uptake of DTX into bladder tissues as compared to commercial (Taxotere) formulations. These increased drug levels probably arise from exfoliation processes resulting in a temporary elimination of the urothelial permeability barrier and increased drug penetration into the tissue. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Patent
The Center For Drug Research And Development | Date: 2014-03-14

Compounds having cytotoxic and/or anti-mitotic activity are disclosed. Methods associated with preparation and use of such compounds, as well as pharmaceutical compositions comprising such compounds, are also disclosed. Also disclosed are compositions having the structure: (T)-(L)-D), wherein (T) is a targeting moiety, (L) is an optional linker, and (D) is a compound having cytotoxic and/or anti-mitotic activity.


Patent
The Center For Drug Research And Development and University of British Columbia | Date: 2014-10-21

The present invention is directed to compositions of matter useful for the treatment of cancer in mammals and to methods of using those compositions of matter for the same. Antibodies specific for podocalyxin designated Ab1 and 3G2 are disclosed, as is the use of said antibodies for the inhibition of growth of a tumor that expresses podocalyxin, and the use of said antibodies for targeting tumour endothelial cells that express podocalyxin.


PubMed | University of British Columbia, The Center for Drug Research and Development and French Institute of Health and Medical Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nucleic acids research | Year: 2016

Nonsense mutations introduce premature termination codons and underlie 11% of genetic disease cases. High concentrations of aminoglycosides can restore gene function by eliciting premature termination codon readthrough but with low efficiency. Using a high-throughput screen, we identified compounds that potentiate readthrough by aminoglycosides at multiple nonsense alleles in yeast. Chemical optimization generated phthalimide derivative CDX5-1 with activity in human cells. Alone, CDX5-1 did not induce readthrough or increase TP53 mRNA levels in HDQ-P1 cancer cells with a homozygous TP53 nonsense mutation. However, in combination with aminoglycoside G418, it enhanced readthrough up to 180-fold over G418 alone. The combination also increased readthrough at all three nonsense codons in cancer cells with other TP53 nonsense mutations, as well as in cells from rare genetic disease patients with nonsense mutations in the CLN2, SMARCAL1 and DMD genes. These findings open up the possibility of treating patients across a spectrum of genetic diseases caused by nonsense mutations.


PubMed | The Center for Drug Research and Development, University of British Columbia and Simon Fraser University
Type: | Journal: European journal of medicinal chemistry | Year: 2016

The development of treatments for influenza that inhibit the M2 proton channel without being susceptible to the widespread resistance mechanisms associated with the adamantanes is an ongoing challenge. Using a yeast high-throughput yeast growth restoration assay designed to identify M2 channel inhibitors, a single screening hit was uncovered. This compound (3), whose structure was incorrectly identified in the literature, is an inhibitor with similar potency to amantadine against WT M2. A library of derivatives of 3 was prepared and activity against WT M2 and the two principal mutant strains (V27A and S31N) was assessed in the yeast assay. The best compounds were further evaluated in an antiviral plaque reduction assay using engineered WT, V27A and S31N M2 influenza A strains with otherwise identical genetic background. Compound 63 was found to inhibit all three virus strains in this cell based antiviral assay at micromolar concentrations, possibly through a mechanism other than M2 inhibition.


Patent
The Center For Drug Research And Development | Date: 2014-03-14

Compounds having cytotoxic and/or anti-mitotic activity are disclosed. The compounds have the following structure (I): including stereoisomers, pharmaceutically acceptable salts and prodrugs thereof, wherein R_(1), R_(2), R_(3), R_(4 )and R_(5 )are as defined herein. Methods associated with preparation and use of such compounds, as well as pharmaceutical compositions comprising such compounds, are also disclosed. Also disclosed are compositions having the structure: (T)-(L)-(D), wherein (T) is a targeting moiety, (L) is an optional linker, and (D) is a compound having structure (I).


PubMed | University of British Columbia and The Center for Drug Research and Development
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pharmaceutical research | Year: 2016

Recently, efficacy studies in mice have shown that amine-terminated cationic (CNP) nanoparticulate carriers of DTX offer an improved formulation of the drug for intravesical delivery. It is hypothesized that this improved efficacy may arise from a carrier mediated bladder exfoliation process that removes the urothelial barrier allowing for increased drug uptake into bladder tissue. The objective of this study was to investigate exfoliation processes in fresh pigs bladders (ex vivo) exposed to three cationic polyglycerols with increasing degrees of amination (denoted 350, 580 and 780). The study also compared the tissue depth profile of DTX uptake into these tissues using these different carriers.Aminated polyglycerols were synthesized and characterized in the laboratory with low (CNP-360), medium (CNP-580) and high (CNP-780) levels of amine content. CNP-based DTX solutions and commercial DTX solutions in polysorbate 80 (Taxotere) were doped with (3)H-radiolabeled DTX and prepared by solvent evaporation from acetonitrile, followed by drying and reconstitution in pH6.4 buffer. Sections of fresh pigs bladder tissue were clamped into Franz diffusion cells and the urothelial side was exposed to the DTX solutions for 2h. Tissue sections were then frozen for sectioning by cryotome sectioning and subsequently processed for drug analysis by liquid scintillation counting. Alternatively tissue sections were fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde and 2% paraformaldehyde in 0.1M sodium cacodylate buffer for the purposes of scanning electron microscopy (SEM).Exposure of the urothelial surface to the amine-terminated polyglycerol solutions resulted in the exfoliation of bladder tissues in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Exfoliation was significantly more pronounced when using CNPs with a medium or high levels of amination whereas only minor levels of exfoliation were seen with low levels. Following incubation of tissues in Tween-based commercial formulations (Taxotere) of DTX (0.5mg/mL) the drug was detectable at low levels (10-40g/g tissue) in all depths of tissue. Similar drug uptake was observed using the CNP-360 formulation. However drug uptake levels were increased to 60-100g/g tissue when samples were incubated with either the CNP-580 or CNP-780 formulations.The use of cationic polyglycerols with higher levels of amine termination allows for an enhanced uptake of DTX into bladder tissues as compared to commercial (Taxotere) formulations. These increased drug levels probably arise from exfoliation processes resulting in a temporary elimination of the urothelial permeability barrier and increased drug penetration into the tissue.


PubMed | The Center for Drug Research and Development and University of British Columbia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Modulation of chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 has been implicated in attenuation of bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. In pulmonary fibrosis, published reports suggest that collagen production in the injured lung is derived from fibrocytes recruited from the circulation in response to release of pulmonary CXCL12. Conversely, in hepatic fibrosis, resident hepatic stellate cells (HSC), the key cell type in progression of fibrosis, upregulate CXCR4 expression in response to activation. Further, CXCL12 induces HSC proliferation and subsequent production of collagen I. In the current study, we evaluated AMD070, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXCL12/CXCR4 in alleviating BLM-induced pulmonary and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. Similar to other CXCR4 antagonists, treatment with AMD070 significantly increased leukocyte mobilization. However, in these two models of fibrosis, AMD070 had a negligible impact on extracellular matrix deposition. Interestingly, our results indicated that CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling has a role in improving mortality associated with BLM induced pulmonary injury, likely through dampening an early inflammatory response and/or vascular leakage. Together, these findings indicate that the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis is not an effective target for reducing fibrosis.

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