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Ahmed S.M.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Palermo A.-G.S.,The Center for Academic Studies | Palermo A.-G.S.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2010

Community engagement in research may enhance a community's ability to address its own health needs and health disparities issues while ensuring that researchers understand community priorities. However, there are researchers with limited understanding of andexperience with effective methods of engaging communities. Furthermore, limited guidance is available for peer-review panels on evaluating proposals for research that engages communities. The National Institutes of Health Director's Council of Public Representatives developed a community engagement framework that includes values, strategies to operationalize each value, and potential outcomes of their use, as well as a peer-review framework for evaluating research that engages communities. Use of these frameworks for educating researchers to create and sustain authentic community-academic partnerships will increase accountability and equality betweenthe partners.

Shalev R.,The Center for Academic Studies | Ben-Asher S.,Kay Academic College
Journal of Loss and Trauma | Year: 2011

The present study is a pilot in Israel that examines the issue of "ambiguous loss": the presence-absence of a parent from the perspective of adults who were children when their father was a POW. The period of the father's absence was examined by means of in-depth interviews with the children of the family almost four decades after the POW event, and as a focus group. The findings are explained by means of the two-track model of bereavement. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Handelzalts J.E.,P.A. College | Becker G.,The Center for Academic Studies | Ahren M.-P.,P.A. College | Lurie S.,Wolfson Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2015

Purpose: This study was aimed at investigating the delivery continuum starting from constant personality variables and their association with Fear of childbirth (FOC) pre-partum, following the association of FOC pre-partum with the delivery process (as measured by birth outcome variables and subjective experience) and the effect of all of these variables over FOC post-partum.Methods: In this prospective questionnaire study, 101 nulliparous, singleton pregnancy, healthy parturients were randomly recruited during 2011. Questionnaires were administered on admittance to the delivery ward (FOC, anxiety-sensitivity index, demographic information) and 2 days post-partum (FOC, Big five inventory and a question regarding the birth experience). Medical Variables were taken from medical records.Results: FOC pre- and post-partum were associated with neuroticism (p < 0.05; p < 0.01) and anxiety sensitivity (p < 0.01). FOC pre-partum was correlated with mode of delivery, higher FOC pre-partum associated with instrumental delivery and emergency CS (p < 0.01). FOC post-partum was associated with both mode of delivery and length of the second phase of delivery (p < 0.05). Hierarchical regression analysis showed FOC pre-partum (β = 0.35, p < 0.01), anxiety sensitivity (β = 0.38, p < 0.01), mode of delivery (β = 0.19, p < 0.05) and birth experience (β = −0.17, p < 0.05) as major predictors for high FOC post-partum explaining 61 % of variance (F(7,84) = 16.82; p < 0.001).Conclusions: The difference between FOC levels pre- and post-partum was associated with personality variables and birth outcomes resulting in a model describing the variance in FOC post-partum by all of the above mentioned variables. As the implications of FOC over delivery outcomes are evident, women suffering from FOC pre-partum should be screened routinely before delivery and offered proper care. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Mears R.,The Center for Academic Studies | Jago R.,University of Bristol
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2016

Aim Physical activity in children improves cardiovascular, mental, metabolic and skeletal health. Many children fail to meet the national recommendation of at least 60 min per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). After-school programmes provide an opportunity to engage children in physical activity. This systematic review and meta-analysis examine the effectiveness of after-school interventions at increasing MVPA levels in children and adolescents. Design Systematic review and meta-analyses. Data sources A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsychINFO databases from January 1950 to April 2015. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Inclusion criteria-Population: participants aged 5-18 years. Intervention: an after-school programme in a schoolbased setting as the main component of an intervention to increase physical activity levels. Outcomes: individuallevel measure of time spent in MVPA. Study design: quasi-experimental, pilot, non-randomised or randomised trials. Exclusion criteria: conference abstracts, unpublished articles, dissertations and non-English language papers. Results 1387 records were identified through database searching. After removal of duplicates, there were 748 records. 15 articles met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. 6 studies were eligible for metaanalysis and the pooled intervention effect at end point follow-up was 4.84 min/day of MVPA (95% CI -0.94 to 10.61). The effectiveness of after-school interventions varied considerably and comparisons between studies limited by different methodological study designs. Subgroup analyses within a small minority of studies revealed significant benefits in overweight/obese children and boys. There was a lack of convincing evidence that interventions based on theories of behaviour change were more effective than those with no underlying theory. Conclusions After-school physical activity interventions to date have had mixed effectiveness on increasing MVPA levels. More robust evaluations of extracurricular physical activity interventions are required, particularly studies that use objective assessment of physical activity. © 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine.

Shintel H.,The Center for Academic Studies | Anderson N.L.,Michigan State University | Fenn K.M.,Michigan State University
Journal of Experimental Psychology: General | Year: 2014

Speakers modulate their prosody to express not only emotional information but also semantic information (e.g., raising pitch for upward motion). Moreover, this information can help listeners infer meaning. Work investigating the communicative role of prosodically conveyed meaning has focused on reference resolution, and potential mnemonic benefits remain unexplored. We investigated the effect of prosody on memory for the meaning of novel words, even when it conveys superfluous information. Participants heard novel words, produced with congruent or incongruent prosody, and viewed image pairs representing the intended meaning and its antonym (e.g., a small and a large dog). Importantly, an arrow indicated the image representing the intended meaning, resolving the ambiguity. Participants then completed 2 memory tests, either immediately after learning or after a 24-hr delay, on which they chose an image (out of a new image pair) and a definition that best represented the word. On the image test, memory was similar on the immediate test, but incongruent prosody led to greater loss over time. On the definition test, memory was better for congruent prosody at both times. Results suggest that listeners extract semantic information from prosody even when it is redundant and that prosody can enhance memory, beyond its role in comprehension. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

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