The Cedars Sinai Heart Institute

Los Angeles, CA, United States

The Cedars Sinai Heart Institute

Los Angeles, CA, United States
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Zhang W.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Zhang W.,Nestlé | Telemaque S.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Telemaque S.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2010

In our previous study, moderate increases in plasma leptin levels achieved via administration of recombinant adenovirus containing the rat leptin cDNA were shown to correct the abnormal metabolic profile in rats with diet-induced obesity, suggesting that these animals had developed resistance to the metabolic effects of leptin, which could be reversed by leptin gene over-expression. However, the effect of this therapeutic strategy on blood pressure was not investigated. The present study aimed to determine whether a moderate increase of endogenous plasma leptin levels affected arterial blood pressure in rats with diet-induced obesity and hypertension. The major finding from the present study was that the natural rise in plasma leptin with weight-gain is insufficient to counterbalance high blood pressure associated with obesity, additional increases of circulating leptin levels with adenoviral leptin gene therapy led to normalisation of blood pressure in high-fat diet-induced obese and hypertensive rats. Mechanistically, the reduction of blood pressure by leptin in obese rats was likely independent of α-adrenergic and acetylcholinergic receptor mediation. This is the first study to demonstrate that further increases in circulating leptin levels by leptin gene transfer during obesity could reduce blood pressure. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


PubMed | University of California at Los Angeles, The Cedars Sinai Heart Institute, Cleveland Clinic, St Barnabas Heart Center and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Lancet (London, England) | Year: 2015

The Organ Care System is the only clinical platform for ex-vivo perfusion of human donor hearts. The system preserves the donor heart in a warm beating state during transport from the donor hospital to the recipient hospital. We aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of the Organ Care System compared with standard cold storage of human donor hearts for transplantation.We did this prospective, open-label, multicentre, randomised non-inferiority trial at ten heart-transplant centres in the USA and Europe. Eligible heart-transplant candidates (aged >18 years) were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive donor hearts preserved with either the Organ Care System or standard cold storage. Participants, investigators, and medical staff were not masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was 30 day patient and graft survival, with a 10% non-inferiority margin. We did analyses in the intention-to-treat, as-treated, and per-protocol populations. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00855712.Between June 29, 2010, and Sept 16, 2013, we randomly assigned 130 patients to the Organ Care System group (n=67) or the standard cold storage group (n=63). 30 day patient and graft survival rates were 94% (n=63) in the Organ Care System group and 97% (n=61) in the standard cold storage group (difference 28%, one-sided 95% upper confidence bound 88; p=045). Eight (13%) patients in the Organ Care System group and nine (14%) patients in the standard cold storage group had cardiac-related serious adverse events.Heart transplantation using donor hearts adequately preserved with the Organ Care System or with standard cold storage yield similar short-term clinical outcomes. The metabolic assessment capability of the Organ Care System needs further study.TransMedics.


Cheng K.,The Cedars Sinai Heart Institute | Blusztajn A.,Capricor | Shen D.,The Cedars Sinai Heart Institute | Shen D.,Zhengzhou University | And 8 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2012

The vast majority of cells delivered into the heart by conventional means are lost within the first 24 h. Methods are needed to enhance cell retention, so as to minimize loss of precious material and maximize effectiveness of the therapy. We tested a cell-hydrogel delivery strategy. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) were grown from adult human cardiac biopsy specimens. In situ polymerizable hydrogels made of hyaluronan and porcine gelatin (Hystem ®-C™) were formulated as a liquid at room temperature so as to gel within 20 min at 37 °C. CDC viability and migration were not compromised in Hystem-C™. Myocardial infarction was created in SCID mice and CDCs were injected intramyocardially in the infarct border zone. Real-time PCR revealed engraftment of CDCs delivered in Hystem-C™ was increased by nearly an order of magnitude. LVEF (left ventricular ejection fraction) deteriorated in the control (PBS only) group over the 3-week time course. Hystem-C™ alone or CDCs alone preserved LVEF relative to baseline, while CDCs delivered in Hystem-C™ resulted in a sizable boost in LVEF. Heart morphometry revealed the greatest attenuation of LV remodeling in the CDC + Hystem-C™ group. Histological analysis suggested cardiovascular differentiation of the CDCs in Hystem-C™. However, the majority of functional benefit is likely from paracrine mechanisms such as tissue preservation and neovascularization. A CDC/hydrogel formulation suitable for catheter-based intramyocardial injection exhibits superior engraftment and functional benefits relative to naked CDCs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | The Cedars Sinai Heart Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biomaterials | Year: 2012

The vast majority of cells delivered into the heart by conventional means are lost within the first 24 h. Methods are needed to enhance cell retention, so as to minimize loss of precious material and maximize effectiveness of the therapy. We tested a cell-hydrogel delivery strategy. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) were grown from adult human cardiac biopsy specimens. In situ polymerizable hydrogels made of hyaluronan and porcine gelatin (Hystem()-C) were formulated as a liquid at room temperature so as to gel within 20 min at 37 C. CDC viability and migration were not compromised in Hystem-C. Myocardial infarction was created in SCID mice and CDCs were injected intramyocardially in the infarct border zone. Real-time PCR revealed engraftment of CDCs delivered in Hystem-C was increased by nearly an order of magnitude. LVEF (left ventricular ejection fraction) deteriorated in the control (PBS only) group over the 3-week time course. Hystem-C alone or CDCs alone preserved LVEF relative to baseline, while CDCs delivered in Hystem-C resulted in a sizable boost in LVEF. Heart morphometry revealed the greatest attenuation of LV remodeling in the CDC + Hystem-C group. Histological analysis suggested cardiovascular differentiation of the CDCs in Hystem-C. However, the majority of functional benefit is likely from paracrine mechanisms such as tissue preservation and neovascularization. A CDC/hydrogel formulation suitable for catheter-based intramyocardial injection exhibits superior engraftment and functional benefits relative to naked CDCs.


PubMed | The Cedars Sinai Heart Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cardiovascular research | Year: 2010

the ex vivo expansion of cardiac stem cells from minimally invasive human heart biopsies yields tens of millions of cells within 3-4 weeks, but chromosomal abnormalities were frequently detected in preliminary production runs. Here we attempt to avoid aneuploidy and improve cell quality by expanding human cardiac stem cells in physiological low-oxygen (5% O(2)) conditions, rather than in traditional culture in a general CO(2) incubator (20% O(2)).human heart biopsies (n = 16) were divided and processed in parallel to expand cardiac stem cells under 5% or 20% O(2). Compared with 20% O(2), 5% O(2) culture doubled the cell production and markedly diminished the frequency of aneuploidy. Cells expanded in 5% O(2) showed lower intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species, less cell senescence, and higher resistance to oxidative stress than those grown in 20% O(2), although the expression of stem cell antigens and adhesion molecules was comparable between groups, as was the paracrine secretion of growth factors into conditioned media. In vivo, the implantation of 5% O(2) cells into infarcted hearts of mice resulted in greater cell engraftment and better functional recovery than with conventionally cultured cells.the expansion of human adult cardiac stem cells in low oxygen increased cell yield, and the resulting cells were superior by various key in vitro and in vivo metrics of cell quality. Physiological oxygen tensions in culture facilitate the ex vivo expansion of healthy, biologically potent stem cells.


PubMed | The Cedars Sinai Heart Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nature biotechnology | Year: 2013

The heartbeat originates within the sinoatrial node (SAN), a small structure containing <10,000 genuine pacemaker cells. If the SAN fails, the 5 billion working cardiomyocytes downstream of it become quiescent, leading to circulatory collapse in the absence of electronic pacemaker therapy. Here we demonstrate conversion of rodent cardiomyocytes to SAN cells in vitro and in vivo by expression of Tbx18, a gene critical for early SAN specification. Within days of in vivo Tbx18 transduction, 9.2% of transduced, ventricular cardiomyocytes develop spontaneous electrical firing physiologically indistinguishable from that of SAN cells, along with morphological and epigenetic features characteristic of SAN cells. In vivo, focal Tbx18 gene transfer in the guinea-pig ventricle yields ectopic pacemaker activity, correcting a bradycardic disease phenotype. Myocytes transduced in vivo acquire the cardinal tapering morphology and physiological automaticity of native SAN pacemaker cells. The creation of induced SAN pacemaker (iSAN) cells opens new prospects for bioengineered pacemakers.

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