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Zhang W.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Zhang W.,Nestle | Telemaque S.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Telemaque S.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2010

In our previous study, moderate increases in plasma leptin levels achieved via administration of recombinant adenovirus containing the rat leptin cDNA were shown to correct the abnormal metabolic profile in rats with diet-induced obesity, suggesting that these animals had developed resistance to the metabolic effects of leptin, which could be reversed by leptin gene over-expression. However, the effect of this therapeutic strategy on blood pressure was not investigated. The present study aimed to determine whether a moderate increase of endogenous plasma leptin levels affected arterial blood pressure in rats with diet-induced obesity and hypertension. The major finding from the present study was that the natural rise in plasma leptin with weight-gain is insufficient to counterbalance high blood pressure associated with obesity, additional increases of circulating leptin levels with adenoviral leptin gene therapy led to normalisation of blood pressure in high-fat diet-induced obese and hypertensive rats. Mechanistically, the reduction of blood pressure by leptin in obese rats was likely independent of α-adrenergic and acetylcholinergic receptor mediation. This is the first study to demonstrate that further increases in circulating leptin levels by leptin gene transfer during obesity could reduce blood pressure. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Cheng K.,The Cedars Sinai Heart Institute | Blusztajn A.,Capricor | Shen D.,The Cedars Sinai Heart Institute | Shen D.,Zhengzhou University | And 8 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2012

The vast majority of cells delivered into the heart by conventional means are lost within the first 24 h. Methods are needed to enhance cell retention, so as to minimize loss of precious material and maximize effectiveness of the therapy. We tested a cell-hydrogel delivery strategy. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) were grown from adult human cardiac biopsy specimens. In situ polymerizable hydrogels made of hyaluronan and porcine gelatin (Hystem ®-C™) were formulated as a liquid at room temperature so as to gel within 20 min at 37 °C. CDC viability and migration were not compromised in Hystem-C™. Myocardial infarction was created in SCID mice and CDCs were injected intramyocardially in the infarct border zone. Real-time PCR revealed engraftment of CDCs delivered in Hystem-C™ was increased by nearly an order of magnitude. LVEF (left ventricular ejection fraction) deteriorated in the control (PBS only) group over the 3-week time course. Hystem-C™ alone or CDCs alone preserved LVEF relative to baseline, while CDCs delivered in Hystem-C™ resulted in a sizable boost in LVEF. Heart morphometry revealed the greatest attenuation of LV remodeling in the CDC + Hystem-C™ group. Histological analysis suggested cardiovascular differentiation of the CDCs in Hystem-C™. However, the majority of functional benefit is likely from paracrine mechanisms such as tissue preservation and neovascularization. A CDC/hydrogel formulation suitable for catheter-based intramyocardial injection exhibits superior engraftment and functional benefits relative to naked CDCs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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