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Samuelsson C.,Skane University Hospital | Sjoberg F.,Linkoping University | Karlstrom G.,The Care Registry | Nolin T.,Kristianstad Central Hospital | Walther S.M.,Linkoping University
Critical Care | Year: 2015

Introduction: Preclinical data indicate that oestrogen appears to play a beneficial role in the pathophysiology of and recovery from critical illness. In few previous epidemiologic studies, however, have researchers analysed premenopausal women as a separate group when addressing potential gender differences in critical care outcome. Our aim was to see if women of premenopausal age have a better outcome following critical care and to investigate the association between gender and use of intensive care unit (ICU) resources. Methods: On the basis of our analysis of 127,254 consecutive Simplified Acute Physiology Score III-scored Swedish Intensive Care Registry ICU admissions from 2008 through 2012, we determined the risk-adjusted 30-day mortality, accumulated nurse workload score and ICU length of stay. To investigate associations with sex, we used logistic regression and multivariate analyses on the entire cohort as well as on two subgroups stratified by median age for menopause (up to and including 45 years and older than 45 years) and six selected diagnostic subgroups (sepsis, multiple trauma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia and cardiac arrest). Results: There was no sex difference in risk-adjusted mortality for the cohort as a whole, and there was no sex difference in risk-adjusted mortality in the group 45 years of age and younger. For the group of patients older than 45 years of age, we found a reduced risk-adjusted mortality in men admitted for cardiac arrest. For the cohort as a whole, and for those admitted with multiple trauma, male sex was associated with a higher nurse workload score and a longer ICU stay. Conclusions: Using information derived from a large multiple ICU register database, we found that premenopausal female sex was not associated with a survival advantage following intensive care in Sweden. When the data were adjusted for age and severity of illness, we found that men used more ICU resources per admission than women did. © 2015 Samuelsson et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source

Rimes-Stigare C.,Karolinska University Hospital | Frumento P.,Institute of Environmental Medicine IMM and Karolinska Institute | Bottai M.,Institute of Environmental Medicine IMM and Karolinska Institute | Martensson J.,Karolinska Institutet | And 4 more authors.
Critical Care | Year: 2015

Introduction: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is common in critical ill populations and its association with high short-term mortality is well established. However, long-term risks of death and renal dysfunction are poorly understood and few studies exclude patients with pre-existing renal disease, meaning outcome for de novo AKI has been difficult to elicit. We aimed to compare the long-term risk of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and mortality in critically ill patients with and without severe de novo AKI. Method: This cohort study was conducted between 2005 and 2011 in Swedish intensive care units (ICU). Data from 130134 adult patients listed on the Swedish intensive care register-database was linked with other national registries. Patients with pre-existing CKD (4192) and ESRD (1389) were excluded, as were cases (26771) with incomplete data. Patients were classified according to AKI exposure during ICU admission. Outcome in the de novo AKI group was compared to the non-exposed (no-AKI) intensive care control group. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Follow-up ranged from one to seven years (median 2.1 years). Secondary outcomes were incidence of CKD and ESRD and median follow-up was 1.3 years. Results: Of 97 782 patients, 5273 (5.4%) had de novo AKI. These patients had significantly higher crude mortality at one (48.4% vs. 24.6%) and five years (61.8% vs. 39.1%) compared to the control group. The first 30% of deaths in AKI patients occurred within 11 days of ICU admission whilst the 30-centile in the no-AKI group died by 748 days. CKD was significantly more common in AKI survivors at one year (6.0% vs. 0.44%) than in no-AKI group (adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) 7.6). AKI patients also had significantly higher rates of ESRD at one (2.0% vs. 0.08%) and at five years (3.9% vs. 0.3%) than those in the comparison group (adjusted IRR 22.5). Conclusion: This large cohort study demonstrated that de novo AKI is associated with increased short and long-term risk of death. AKI is independently associated with increased risk of CKD and ESRD as compared to an ICU control population. Severe de novo AKI survivors should be routinely followed-up and their renal function monitored. © 2015 Rimes-Stigare et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source

Liu H.-W.,University of Calgary | Khan R.,University of Calgary | D'Ambrosi R.,University of Calgary | Krobutschek K.,University of Calgary | And 2 more authors.
Radiotherapy and Oncology | Year: 2013

Purpose: To investigate the influence of tumor and patient characteristics on the target volume obtained from cone beam CT (CBCT) in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Materials and methods: For a given cohort of 71 patients, the internal target volume (ITV) in CBCT obtained from four different datasets was compared with a reference ITV drawn on a four-dimensional CT (4DCT). The significance of the tumor size, location, relative target motion (RM) and patient's body mass index (BMI) and gender on the adequacy of ITV obtained from CBCT was determined. Results: The median ITV-CBCT was found to be smaller than the ITV-4DCT by 11.8% (range: -49.8 to +24.3%, P < 0.001). Small tumors located in the lower lung were found to have a larger RM than large tumors in the upper lung. Tumors located near the central lung had high CT background which reduced the target contrast near the edges. Tumor location close to center vs. periphery was the only significant factor (P = 0.046) causing underestimation of ITV in CBCT, rather than RM (P = 0.323) and other factors. Conclusions: The current clinical study has identified that the location of tumor is a major source of discrepancy between ITV-CBCT and ITV-4DCT for lung SBRT. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Straney L.,The Care Registry
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2016

OBJECTIVES:: Despite World Health Organization endorsed immunization schedules, Bordetella pertussis continues to cause severe infections, predominantly in infants. There is a lack of data on the frequency and outcome of severe pertussis infections in infants requiring ICU admission. We aimed to describe admission rates, severity, mortality, and costs of pertussis infections in critically ill infants. DESIGN:: Binational observational multicenter study. SETTING:: Ten PICUs and 19 general ICUs in Australia and New Zealand contributing to the Australian and New Zealand Paediatric Intensive Care Registry. PATIENTS:: Infants below 1 year of age, requiring intensive care due to pertussis infection in Australia and New Zealand between 2002 and 2014. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: During the study period, 416 of 42,958 (1.0%) infants admitted to the ICU were diagnosed with pertussis. The estimated population-based ICU admission rate due to pertussis ranged from 2.1/100,000 infants to 18.6/100,000 infants. Admission rates were the highest among infants less than 60 days old (p < 0.0001). Two hundred six infants (49.5%) required mechanical ventilation, including 20 (4.8%) treated with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, 16 (3.8%) with inhaled nitric oxide, and 7 (1.7%) with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Twenty of the 416 children (4.8%) died. The need for mechanical ventilation, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, nitric oxide, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were significantly associated with mortality (p < 0.01). Direct severe pertussis–related hospitalization costs were in excess of USD$1,000,000 per year. CONCLUSIONS:: Pertussis continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality in infants, in particular during the first months of life. Improved strategies are required to reduce the significant healthcare costs and disease burden of this vaccine-preventable disease. ©2016The Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies Source

Van De Velde N.,University of Quebec at Rimouski | Van De Velde N.,Laval University | Boily M.-C.,University of Quebec at Rimouski | Boily M.-C.,Imperial College London | And 16 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2012

Background Bivalent and quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are now licensed in several countries. Furthermore, clinical trials examining the efficacy of a nonavalent vaccine are underway. We aimed to compare the potential population-level effectiveness of the bivalent, quadrivalent, and candidate nonavalent HPV vaccines.MethodsWe developed an individual-based, transmission-dynamic model of HPV infection and disease in a population stratified by age, gender, sexual activity, and screening behavior. The model was calibrated to highly stratified sexual behavior, HPV epidemiology, and cervical screening data from Canada.ResultsUnder base case assumptions, vaccinating 12-year-old girls (70% coverage) with the bivalent (quadrivalent) vaccine is predicted to reduce the cumulative incidence of anogenital warts (AGWs) by 0.0% (72.1%), diagnosed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia lesions 2 and 3 (CIN2 and -3) by 51.0% (46.1%), and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by 31.9% (30.5%), over 70 years. Changing from a bivalent (quadrivalent) to a nonavalent vaccine is predicted to reduce the cumulative number of AGW episodes by an additional 66.7% (0.0%), CIN2 and -3 episodes by an additional 9.3% (12.5%), and SCC cases by an additional 4.8% (6.6%) over 70 years. Differences in predicted population-level effectiveness between the vaccines were most sensitive to duration of protection and the time horizon of analysis. The vaccines produced similar effectiveness at preventing noncervical HPV-related cancers.ConclusionsThe bivalent vaccine is expected to be slightly more effective at preventing CIN2 and -3 and SCC in the longer term, whereas the quadrivalent vaccine is expected to substantially reduce AGW cases shortly after the start of vaccination programs. Switching to a nonavalent vaccine has the potential to further reduce precancerous lesions and cervical cancer. © 2012 The Author. Source

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