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Haraldstad K.,Oslo University College | Haraldstad K.,University of Bergen | Sorum R.,The Cancer Registry of Norway | Eide H.,Oslo University College | And 2 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences

Background: Pain problems in children and adolescents have increased during the last 20years and have been identified as an important public health problem. Aims: The specific aims of the study were to study the prevalence of pain, its association with age, gender, and socio-demographics, its frequency, duration, and type. A further aim is to describe the impact of pain on daily living, perceived triggers of pain, and correspondence between parents' and children's perceptions of pain. Design: A cross-sectional study, with a descriptive, exploratory design. Settings and participants: A cluster sample of children and adolescents (age 8-18years N=1238,) and parents (n=828), from 20 randomly selected schools in a region of Norway. Methods: Data were collected using a structured self-report questionnaire, the Lübeck Pain-Screening Questionnaire (LPQ). The children filled in the questionnaires at school, while the parents completed the questionnaires at home. Results: Sixty per cent of the children and adolescents reported pain within the previous 3months. Pain increased with age, where girls aged 16-18years reported the most pain. Total prevalence of chronic pain was 21%. Children reported impact on social life; inability to pursue hobbies, disturbed sleep, absence from school, and inability to meet friends because of pain. The girls reported significantly more frequently disturbed sleep, loss of appetite, and use of medication, compared to the boys. There was little agreement between parents and children regarding pain. Conclusions: Pain is a common problem and influences the daily lives of children and adolescents. Many parents are unaware of the pain experienced by their children. There is a need for preventive programmes that also involve parents, school nurses, and teachers. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science. Source

De Vogel S.,University of Bergen | Meyer K.,Bevital AS | Fredriksen A.,Bevital AS | Ulvik A.,Bevital AS | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Epidemiology

Background Although individual studies have been inconsistent, meta-analyses of epidemiological data suggest that high folate and vitamin B12 levels may be associated with increased prostate cancer risk. Methods Within JANUS, a prospective cohort in Norway (n=317 000) with baseline serum samples, we conducted a nested case-control study among 3000 prostate cancer cases and 3000 controls, matched on age and time at serum sampling, and county of residence. Using conditional logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for prostate cancer risk were estimated according to quintiles of serum folate, vitamin B12, methylmalonic acid (MMA), total homocysteine (tHcy) and methionine, and according to MTHFR 677C→T genotypes. To correct for degradation during sample storage, folate concentration was measured as p-aminobenzoylglutamate (pABG) equivalents following oxidation and acid hydrolysis. Results We observed a weak positive association between folate concentration and prostate cancer risk [OR highest vs lowest quintile=1.15 (0.97-1.37), P-trend=0.04], which was more pronounced among individuals ≥50 years at inclusion [OR 1.40 (1.07-1.84), P-trend=0.02]. tHcy showed an inverse trend with risk [OR 0.92 (0.77-1.10), P-trend=0.03]. Vitamin B12, MMA and methionine concentrations were not associated with prostate cancer risk. Compared with the MTHFR 677CC genotype, the CT and TT variants, both of which were related to lower folate concentrations, were associated with reduced prostate cancer risk [OR 0.82 (0.72-0.94) and OR 0.78 (0.64-0.94), respectively]. Conclusion This large-scale population-based study suggests that high serum folate concentration may be associated with modestly increased prostate cancer risk. We did not observe an association between vitamin B12 status and prostate cancer risk. © The Author 2013; All rights reserved. Source

Kvale R.,The Cancer Registry of Norway | Moller B.,The Cancer Registry of Norway | Angelsen A,.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Dahl O.,University of Bergen | And 8 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology

Objectives: To compare the trends in prostate cancer incidence, treatment with curative intent and mortality across regions and counties in Norway, and to consider changes in incidence (an indicator for early diagnosis) and treatment with curative intent as explanatory factors for the decreasing prostate cancer mortality rates. Patients and methods: Prostate cancer incidence and mortality data (1980-2007) alongside treatment data (1987-2005) were obtained from the national, population-based Cancer Registry of Norway. Joinpoint regression models were fitted to age-adjusted incidence, treatment and mortality rates to identify linear changes in the trends. Results: Both age-adjusted incidence rates and rates of curative treatment of prostate cancer increased significantly in all five regions of Norway since the early 1990s. There was a strong positive correlation between increasing incidence and increasing use of curative treatment. The frequency of curative treatment in Western Norway was almost threefold that in the Northern and Central regions around year 2000. Subsequently, the regional trends converged and only minor differences in prostate cancer incidence and use of curative treatment were observed by 2005. The declines in mortality were observed earliest in the regions with the highest incidence and the most frequent use of curative treatment, while the largest decreases in mortality were found in counties where the largest increases in curative treatment were observed. Conclusions: The elucidation of the prostate cancer mortality trends is hindered by an inability to tease out the potential effects of early treatment from the more general impact of improved and more active treatment. However, it is likely that both sets of intervention have contributed to the decline in prostate cancer mortality in Norway since 1996. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Vienneau D.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Vienneau D.,University of Basel | Infanger D.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Infanger D.,University of Basel | And 16 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology

Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight, length, maternal age), birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction, preterm delivery, birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking, working, dietary supplement intake) in relation to risk of brain tumour diagnosis among 7-19 year olds. The multinational case-control study in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Switzerland (CEFALO) included interviews with 352 (participation rate = 83.2%) eligible cases and 646 (71.1%) population-based controls. Interview data were complemented with data from birth registries and validated by assessing agreement (Cohen's Kappa). We used conditional logistic regression models matched on age, sex and geographical region (adjusted for maternal age and parental education) to explore associations between birth factors and childhood brain tumour risk. Agreement between interview and birth registry data ranged from moderate (Kappa = 0.54; worked during pregnancy) to almost perfect (Kappa = 0.98; birth weight). Neither anthropogenic factors nor birth characteristics were associated with childhood brain tumour risk. Maternal vitamin intake during pregnancy was indicative of a protective effect (OR 0.75, 95%-CI: 0.56-1.01). No association was seen for maternal smoking during pregnancy or working during pregnancy. We found little evidence that the considered birth factors were related to brain tumour risk among children and adolescents. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Aydin D.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Aydin D.,University of Basel | Feychting M.,Karolinska Institutet | Schuz J.,International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC | And 10 more authors.
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology

A growing body of literature addresses possible health effects of mobile phone use in children and adolescents by relying on the study participants' retrospective reconstruction of mobile phone use. In this study, we used data from the international case-control study CEFALO to compare self-reported with objectively operator-recorded mobile phone use. The aim of the study was to assess predictors of level of mobile phone use as well as factors that are associated with overestimating own mobile phone use. For cumulative number and duration of calls as well as for time since first subscription we calculated the ratio of self-reported to operator-recorded mobile phone use. We used multiple linear regression models to assess possible predictors of the average number and duration of calls per day and logistic regression models to assess possible predictors of overestimation.The cumulative number and duration of calls as well as the time since first subscription of mobile phones were overestimated on average by the study participants. Likelihood to overestimate number and duration of calls was not significantly different for controls compared to cases (OR = 1.1, 95%-CI: 0.5 to 2.5 and OR = 1.9, 95%-CI: 0.85 to 4.3, respectively). However, likelihood to overestimate was associated with other health related factors such as age and sex. As a consequence, such factors act as confounders in studies relying solely on self-reported mobile phone use and have to be considered in the analysis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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