Haines B.,The Buck Institute for Research on Aging |
Li P.A.,North Carolina Central University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Mitochondria play a critical role in cell survival and death after cerebral ischemia. Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are inner mitochondrial membrane proteins that disperse the mitochondrial proton gradient by translocating H + across the inner membrane in order to stabilize the inner mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m) and reduce the formation of reactive oxygen species. Previous studies have demonstrated that mice transgenically overexpressing UCP2 (UCP2 Tg) in the brain are protected from cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury and epileptic challenges. This study seeks to clarify the mechanisms responsible for neuroprotection after transient focal ischemia. Our hypothesis is that UCP2 is neuroprotective by suppressing innate inflammation and regulating cell cycle mediators. PCR gene arrays and protein arrays were used to determine mechanisms of damage and protection after transient focal ischemia. Our results showed that ischemia increased the expression of inflammatory genes and suppressed the expression of anti-apoptotic and cell cycle genes. Overexpression of UCP2 blunted the ischemia-induced increase in IL-6 and decrease in Bcl2. Further, UCP2 increased the expression of cell cycle genes and protein levels of phospho-AKT, PKC and MEK after ischemia. It is concluded that the neuroprotective effects of UCP2 against ischemic brain injury are associated with inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of cell survival factors. © 2012 Haines and Li.
Kwan E.X.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center |
Foss E.J.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center |
Tsuchiyama S.,The Buck Institute for Research on Aging |
Alvino G.M.,University of Washington |
And 6 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2013
Aging and longevity are complex traits influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control replicative lifespan, we employed an outbred Saccharomyces cerevisiae model, generated by crossing a vineyard and a laboratory strain. The predominant QTL mapped to the rDNA, with the vineyard rDNA conferring a lifespan increase of 41%. The lifespan extension was independent of Sir2 and Fob1, but depended on a polymorphism in the rDNA origin of replication from the vineyard strain that reduced origin activation relative to the laboratory origin. Strains carrying vineyard rDNA origins have increased capacity for replication initiation at weak plasmid and genomic origins, suggesting that inability to complete genome replication presents a major impediment to replicative lifespan. Calorie restriction, a conserved mediator of lifespan extension that is also independent of Sir2 and Fob1, reduces rDNA origin firing in both laboratory and vineyard rDNA. Our results are consistent with the possibility that calorie restriction, similarly to the vineyard rDNA polymorphism, modulates replicative lifespan through control of rDNA origin activation, which in turn affects genome replication dynamics. © 2013 Kwan et al.
Brejning J.,University of Aarhus |
Norgaard S.,University of Aarhus |
Scholer L.,University of Aarhus |
Morthorst T.H.,University of Aarhus |
And 4 more authors.
Aging Cell | Year: 2014
NDG-4 is a predicted transmembrane acyltransferase protein that acts in the distribution of lipophilic factors. Consequently, ndg-4 mutants lay eggs with a pale appearance due to lack of yolk, and they are resistant to sterility caused by dietary supplementation with the long-chain omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid dihommogamma-linolenic acid (DGLA). Two other proteins, NRF-5 and NRF-6, a homolog of a mammalian secreted lipid binding protein and a NDG-4 homolog, respectively, have previously been shown to function in the same lipid transport pathway. Here, we report that mutation of the NDG-4 protein results in increased organismal stress resistance and lifespan. When NDG-4 function and insulin/IGF-1 signaling are reduced simultaneously, maximum lifespan is increased almost fivefold. Thus, longevity conferred by mutation of ndg-4 is partially overlapping with insulin signaling. The nuclear hormone receptor NHR-80 (HNF4 homolog) is required for longevity in germline less animals. We find that NHR-80 is also required for longevity of ndg-4 mutants. Moreover, we find that nrf-5 and nrf-6 mutants also have extended lifespan and increased stress resistance, suggesting that altered lipid transport and metabolism play key roles in determining lifespan. © 2013 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Martins R.,University of Algarve |
Lithgow G.J.,The Buck Institute for Research on Aging |
Link W.,University of Algarve
Aging Cell | Year: 2016
Aging constitutes the key risk factor for age-related diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Human longevity and healthy aging are complex phenotypes influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The fact that genetic contribution to lifespan strongly increases with greater age provides basis for research on which "protective genes" are carried by long-lived individuals. Studies have consistently revealed FOXO (Forkhead box O) transcription factors as important determinants in aging and longevity. FOXO proteins represent a subfamily of transcription factors conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to mammals that act as key regulators of longevity downstream of insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling. Invertebrate genomes have one FOXO gene, while mammals have four FOXO genes: FOXO1, FOXO3, FOXO4, and FOXO6. In mammals, this subfamily is involved in a wide range of crucial cellular processes regulating stress resistance, metabolism, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Their role in longevity determination is complex and remains to be fully elucidated. Throughout this review, the mechanisms by which FOXO factors contribute to longevity will be discussed in diverse animal models, from Hydra to mammals. Moreover, compelling evidence of FOXOs as contributors for extreme longevity and health span in humans will be addressed. © 2016 The Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Morrone A.,Pediatric Neurology Unit and Laboratories |
Morrone A.,University of Florence |
Caciotti A.,Pediatric Neurology Unit and Laboratories |
Atwood R.,The Buck Institute for Research on Aging |
And 10 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2014
Morquio A syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis IVA) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results from deficient activity of the enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS) due to alterations in the GALNS gene, which causes major skeletal and connective tissue abnormalities and effects on multiple organ systems. The GALNS alterations associated with Morquio A are numerous and heterogeneous, and new alterations are continuously identified. To aid detection and interpretation of GALNS alterations, from previously published research, we provide a comprehensive and up-to-date listing of 277 unique GALNS alterations associated with Morquio A identified from 1,091 published GALNS alleles. In agreement with previous findings, most reported GALNS alterations are missense changes and even the most frequent alterations are relatively uncommon. We found that 48% of patients are assessed as homozygous for a GALNS alteration, 39% are assessed as heterozygous for two identified GALNS alterations, and in 13% of patients only one GALNS alteration is detected. We report here the creation of a locus-specific database for the GALNS gene (http://galns.mutdb.org/) that catalogs all reported alterations in GALNS to date. We highlight the challenges both in alteration detection and genotype-phenotype interpretation caused in part by the heterogeneity of GALNS alterations and provide recommendations for molecular testing of GALNS. © 2014 The Authors.