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This study investigates the discourses of citizen journalism by critically evaluating the notion of Web 2.0. The utopian concept referring to the second generation of the Web nicely captures the new era when more information is generated by average people than by professionals. An uncritical application of the framework, however, has caused a serious misunderstanding of citizen journalism as "amateur journalism." Analyzing South Korea's unique experiment with OhmyNews, this paper argues that citizen journalism cannot be understood in terms of "user-generated content (UGC)" in general. It also suggests that finding a viable model of citizen journalism is one thing, and making it work is quite another. By comparing OhmyNews Japan with its original Korean counterpart, it sheds light on how the same model can yield completely different results. In doing so, it emphasizes the importance of social, cultural, and symbolic considerations. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Researchers and ethics board members are often concerned about the possibility of adverse reactions to trauma-related research. While research has shown that participants in trauma-related studies rarely experience adverse reactions, mild short-term emotional distress is common. While a number of protections have been suggested to minimize risks for more vulnerable subgroups of participants, no research to date has tested how modifications to informed consent procedures may affect the data collected and participant reactions to the research. One-hundred and forty-five college students were separated into five conditions with different modifications to the informed consent procedures. Participants completed surveys on trauma experience, posttraumatic stress, coping, and reactions to research participation. The results showed no differences among the conditions on all outcome measures. It appears that modifications to informed consent procedures geared toward minimizing risk do not affect the quality of the data collected nor change reactions to participating in trauma-related research. 2016 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Source

Fang T.,North Carolina State University | Tao H.,421 Egret Lane | Zhong Y.,The Behrend College
Transport in Porous Media

In this note, the mixed unsteady stagnation-point boundary layer over a vertical plate with mass transfer in a fluid-saturated porous medium is revisited. Closed-form analytical solutions are found and presented for a special value of the flow unsteadiness parameter. Multiple solution branches are obtained for certain controlling parameters. These solutions might offer more insights into the mixed convection flow characteristics compared with the numerical solutions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Brooker's merocyanine (4-[(1-methyl-4(1H)-pyridinylidene)ethylidene]-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one) is a dye molecule that has a unique photochemical/protolytic isomerization cycle. The cis to trans isomerization of the neutral molecule occurs only in one direction with the addition of photochemical energy. When the dye molecule is complexed with β-cyclodextrin, however, the isomerization occurs spontaneously without further energy required. To understand the difference between the native dye molecule and the complex, the molecular structures of the cis and trans isomers of Brooker's merocyanine in β-cyclodextrin were optimized using the semi-empirical PM3 method as well as the hybrid ONIOM method which models the cyclodextrin at the PM3 level and the dye molecule using B3LYP/6-31g(d). The most stable complexes were similar in binding energy, although the molecular structures were quite different. The ONIOM optimized structures resulted in an increase in the planarity of the conjugated dye molecule when compared to the PM3 model. The trans isomer in the β-cyclodextrin cavity was also characterized experimentally using 1H-NMR complexation-induced shifts, and the results were found to be in good agreement with the proposed structure from the molecular modeling. Finally, the calculated thermodynamic properties of the trans isomer complex were compared to experimental results, and it became clear that water within the cavity must be included in the analysis to obtain accurate theoretical values. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Climate change in the Great Lakes Basin of North America over the next several decades is projected to lead to significant changes to coastal environments. Groundwater-driven coastal bluff recession should increase in areas where groundwater forcing is important and lead to increased loss of coastal uplands. The latter is an issue in NW Pennsylvania because of coastal development pressures, and because the state ranks within the top five US states in grape production, most of which occurs within 5 km of the Lake Erie coastline. In 2007, viticulture contributed almost $2.4 billion to the state economy. An analysis of a 20-km stretch of coast shows that bluff retreat is pervasive and variable under current climatic conditions. Over a 9-year time frame, bluff change rates ranged from -4.2 to +0.98 m/year. In general, higher retreat rates (-0.2 to -0.65 m/year) occurred along the sandy central beach-ridge sector which lacks significant surface drainage. Lower retreat rates (-0.10 to -0.25 m/year) occurred along coastal sectors where surface drainage networks are well developed. Conservative estimates of groundwater discharge at the bluff correlate strongly (r = 0.74, p < 0.001) with bluff retreat rate. Groundwater is inferred to be the principal driving mechanism for both bluff retreat and spatial variability in retreat rates on this coast. Other common factors that may spatially influence bluff retreat elsewhere (bluff height, land use, beach width) do not correlate strongly with retreat rate. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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