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Kang I.,The Behrend College
Telematics and Informatics | Year: 2015

This study investigates the discourses of citizen journalism by critically evaluating the notion of Web 2.0. The utopian concept referring to the second generation of the Web nicely captures the new era when more information is generated by average people than by professionals. An uncritical application of the framework, however, has caused a serious misunderstanding of citizen journalism as "amateur journalism." Analyzing South Korea's unique experiment with OhmyNews, this paper argues that citizen journalism cannot be understood in terms of "user-generated content (UGC)" in general. It also suggests that finding a viable model of citizen journalism is one thing, and making it work is quite another. By comparing OhmyNews Japan with its original Korean counterpart, it sheds light on how the same model can yield completely different results. In doing so, it emphasizes the importance of social, cultural, and symbolic considerations. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhong Y.,The Behrend College | Fang T.,North Carolina State University | Wert K.L.,Thermacore
Energy | Year: 2011

The recent development to control the emissions of large diesel engines has provided opportunities for heat-driven cooling methods in vehicles. An adsorption air conditioning system is therefore proposed in this work for heavy-duty truck application. This system is powered by engine waste heat when the engine of a truck is running. When the engine is off, it can be operated by fuel fired heaters, a newly implemented technology to reduce truck idling. Hence, this system can not only reduce engine emissions but also improve the overall energy efficiency. A lumped parameter model of the system using zeolite-water as its working pair is developed, and the adsorption capacity of zeolite is simulated with the linear driving force model. The dynamic performance of the system and a parametric study on adsorbent mass transfer, operating temperatures and cycle operating periods are presented. Alternative working pairs and the potential to commercialize the system are also discussed. This system may be designed to satisfy the cooling requirement for idle reduction of long-haul trucks. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Hetzel-Riggin M.D.,The Behrend College
Journal of Loss and Trauma | Year: 2016

Researchers and ethics board members are often concerned about the possibility of adverse reactions to trauma-related research. While research has shown that participants in trauma-related studies rarely experience adverse reactions, mild short-term emotional distress is common. While a number of protections have been suggested to minimize risks for more vulnerable subgroups of participants, no research to date has tested how modifications to informed consent procedures may affect the data collected and participant reactions to the research. One-hundred and forty-five college students were separated into five conditions with different modifications to the informed consent procedures. Participants completed surveys on trauma experience, posttraumatic stress, coping, and reactions to research participation. The results showed no differences among the conditions on all outcome measures. It appears that modifications to informed consent procedures geared toward minimizing risk do not affect the quality of the data collected nor change reactions to participating in trauma-related research. 2016 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Collins T.J.,The Behrend College | Roth J.T.,The Behrend College
Transactions of the North American Manufacturing Research Institution of SME | Year: 2010

Deep drawing is a commonly used process for the fabrication of sheet metal parts such as soda cans, pots and pans, automotive body panels, etc. For these types of applications, the use of strong light weight metal alloys such as AI 5052-O is highly desirable, however, limited due to unfavorable material properties during processing. Previous research has shown that Electrically-Assisted Manufacturing (EAM) tends to have a positive impact on the material properties of most metals. By passing an electrical current through workpieces as they are deformed, EAM has been shown to increase the achievable elongation, reduce flow stress, decrease the required process energy, and reduce or eliminate springback. With these potential benefits in mind, the research presented herein investigates the application of the EAM technique to deep drawing. The results of this research show that the EAM technique is able to lower flow stress and reduce springback in a simplified deep drawing process.

Bunget C.,Clemson University | Salandro W.A.,Clemson University | Mears L.,Clemson University | Roth J.T.,The Behrend College
Transactions of the North American Manufacturing Research Institution of SME | Year: 2010

A new approach to improving formability of metals using electrical current field application has been recently studied, and found to not only greatly improve achievable elongation, but also has a beneficial effect on residual stress levels and reduces elastic springback magnitude. The effect has been shown to be somewhat attributable to thermal softening, but there are also unaccounted electrical effects. This paper presents a formal quantification of the electrical field effect using an energy balance approach. A physical model incorporating the electrical field and mechanical energy input is derived, and a new electroplastic effect coefficient is introduced to account for the direct contribution of the current on material flow. The derived model is compared against experimental results and predicts the electroplastic behavior.

Brooker's merocyanine (4-[(1-methyl-4(1H)-pyridinylidene)ethylidene]-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one) is a dye molecule that has a unique photochemical/protolytic isomerization cycle. The cis to trans isomerization of the neutral molecule occurs only in one direction with the addition of photochemical energy. When the dye molecule is complexed with β-cyclodextrin, however, the isomerization occurs spontaneously without further energy required. To understand the difference between the native dye molecule and the complex, the molecular structures of the cis and trans isomers of Brooker's merocyanine in β-cyclodextrin were optimized using the semi-empirical PM3 method as well as the hybrid ONIOM method which models the cyclodextrin at the PM3 level and the dye molecule using B3LYP/6-31g(d). The most stable complexes were similar in binding energy, although the molecular structures were quite different. The ONIOM optimized structures resulted in an increase in the planarity of the conjugated dye molecule when compared to the PM3 model. The trans isomer in the β-cyclodextrin cavity was also characterized experimentally using 1H-NMR complexation-induced shifts, and the results were found to be in good agreement with the proposed structure from the molecular modeling. Finally, the calculated thermodynamic properties of the trans isomer complex were compared to experimental results, and it became clear that water within the cavity must be included in the analysis to obtain accurate theoretical values. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Climate change in the Great Lakes Basin of North America over the next several decades is projected to lead to significant changes to coastal environments. Groundwater-driven coastal bluff recession should increase in areas where groundwater forcing is important and lead to increased loss of coastal uplands. The latter is an issue in NW Pennsylvania because of coastal development pressures, and because the state ranks within the top five US states in grape production, most of which occurs within 5 km of the Lake Erie coastline. In 2007, viticulture contributed almost $2.4 billion to the state economy. An analysis of a 20-km stretch of coast shows that bluff retreat is pervasive and variable under current climatic conditions. Over a 9-year time frame, bluff change rates ranged from -4.2 to +0.98 m/year. In general, higher retreat rates (-0.2 to -0.65 m/year) occurred along the sandy central beach-ridge sector which lacks significant surface drainage. Lower retreat rates (-0.10 to -0.25 m/year) occurred along coastal sectors where surface drainage networks are well developed. Conservative estimates of groundwater discharge at the bluff correlate strongly (r = 0.74, p < 0.001) with bluff retreat rate. Groundwater is inferred to be the principal driving mechanism for both bluff retreat and spatial variability in retreat rates on this coast. Other common factors that may spatially influence bluff retreat elsewhere (bluff height, land use, beach width) do not correlate strongly with retreat rate. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Ramsay J.,New York University | Bedal L.-A.,The Behrend College
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany | Year: 2015

Archaeobotanical samples recovered during the 2004, 2005, 2009 and 2011 excavation seasons at the Petra Garden and Pool Complex (PGPC) in Jordan examined plants that were preserved during different phases of use of the site. The analysis of these remains attempts to determine what plants would have been grown in the garden in antiquity. Results indicated that the material recovered likely represented plants that had been preserved elsewhere in the area and then deposited in the garden to act as fertilizer. The remains were generally charred and were probably derived from fuel and/or waste deposits as it does not appear that the garden was catastrophically burned. Although it is difficult to ascertain garden variety plants under these preservation conditions, an analysis of the archaeobotanical data from the PGPC addresses the questions of what and how plants functioned in the local and regional economy, and how the role of the garden changed through time, in addition to providing insight into the general environmental or ecological conditions present in southern Jordan from the Late Hellenistic through Late Byzantine/Post-Classical periods. Although ornamental species represent a small fraction of materials collected, the presence of these taxa may indicate their occurrence in the garden. Even if garden plants are not readily identifiable, this study aids in addressing the larger issues of trade, economy and environment of this ancient city, as well as the feasibility of identifying garden plants in antiquity. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Mastroberardino A.,The Behrend College
Advances in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics | Year: 2014

An investigation is carried out on mixed convection boundary layer flow of an incompressible and electrically conducting viscoelastic fluid over a linearly stretching surface in which the heat transfer includes the effects of viscous dissipation, elastic deformation, thermal radiation, and non-uniform heat source/sink for two general types of non-isothermal boundary conditions. The governing partial differential equations for the fluid flow and temperature are reduced to a nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations which are solved analytically using the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Graphical and numerical demonstrations of the convergence of the HAMsolutions are provided, and the effects of various parameters on the skin friction coefficient and wall heat transfer are tabulated. In addition it is demonstrated that previously reported solutions of the thermal energy equation given in [1] do not converge at the boundary, and therefore, the boundary derivatives reported are not correct. © 2014 Global Science Press.

Jones J.J.,Clemson University | Mears L.,Clemson University | Roth J.T.,The Behrend College
Transactions of the North American Manufacturing Research Institution of SME | Year: 2010

Present research involving Electrically-Assisted Manufacturing (EAM) has shown the advantageous effects that an applied current flux provides on the mechanical properties with respect to part formation. Overall general results using this process include the reduction of the flow stress during forming, increased achievable deformation, and a decrease or elimination of springback. Specifically targeting the compression process, this paper evaluates the stress-strain relationship and develops from experimental results an initial stress predictor function that includes the effect of electrical current. Once developed, the derived empirical model is shown capable of estimating the flow stress for an EAM upsetting test at various current densities.

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