Ringo E.,The Arctic University of NorwayTromso |
Andersen R.,The Arctic University of NorwayTromso |
Sperstad S.,University of Kiel |
Zhou Z.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
And 10 more authors.
Food Biotechnology | Year: 2014
The bacterial community of fermented horse milk (koumiss) from Mongolia was studied using three methods: cultivation, direct identification by 16S rRNA clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Ninety-eight strains were isolated by traditional cultivation and 61 of those were randomly selected for further identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The strains were dominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB; six different lactobacilli), Acinetobacter, Bacillus and Psychrobacter. Construction of the clone library analysis revealed that 16S sequences of 220 clones, genus Lactobacillus was dominant, but Streptococcus thermophilus, Acetobacter pasteurianus and uncultured clones were also detected. Ten unique bands were sequenced from the DGGE and revealed: Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Clostridium acidurici, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Dickeya sp., Enterobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., Raoultella sp., and Ruminococcus sp. In vitro growth inhibition of three human pathogens, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter sakazakii and Staphylococcus aureus by 14 culturable bacteria displayed that only three of the isolates tested inhibit growth of E. sakazakii while most of the other bacteria delayed growth of the target bacteria. ©, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
PubMed | University of Oulu and the Arctic University of NorwayTromso
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in plant science | Year: 2016
Hypericum perforatum L. is an important medicinal plant for the treatment of depression. The plant contains bioactive hypericins that accumulate in dark glands present especially in reproductive parts of the plant. In this study, pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) family genes were identified in H. perforatum, including three previously unidentified members with sequence homology to hyp-1, a phenolic coupling protein that has earlier been suggested to participate in biosynthesis and binding/transportation of hypericin. The PR-10 genes showed constitutive but variable expression patterns in different H. perforatum tissues. They were all expressed at relatively high levels in leaves, variably in roots and low levels in stem and reproductive parts of the plant with no specific association with dark glands. The gene expression was up-regulated in leaves after salicylic acid, abscisic acid and wounding treatments but with variable levels. To study exact location of the gene expression, in situ hybridization of hyp-1 transcripts was performed and the accumulation of the Hyp-1 protein was examined in various tissues. The presence of Hyp-1 protein in H. perforatum tissues mostly paralleled with the mRNA levels. In situ RNA hybridization localized the hyp-1 transcripts predominantly in vascular tissues in root and stem, while in leaf the mRNA levels were high also in mesophyll cells in addition to vasculature. Our results indicate that the studied PR-10 genes are likely to contribute to the defense responses in H. perforatum. Furthermore, despite the location of the hyp-1 transcripts in vasculature, no support for the transportation of the Hyp-1 protein to dark glands was found in the current study. The present results together with earlier data question the role of the hyp-1 as a key gene responsible for the hypericin biosynthesis in dark glands of H. perforatum.