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Rahman Z.,The Aquaya Institute | Crocker J.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Chang K.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Khush R.,The Aquaya Institute | Bartram J.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development | Year: 2011

The global burden of disease attributable to contaminated drinking water calls for effective strategies for ensuring drinking water quality. To characterize institutional and policy approaches towards water quality management, we compared national and sub-national institutional frameworks for drinking water provision and management in nine developing countries, focusing on roles, responsibilities and capacity for water quality monitoring. Responsibilities for operational and surveillance (compliance) water quality monitoring of formal urban water supplies are typically well defined, with attention placed on both activities. Legal requirements for surveillance monitoring of community and smaller supplies are generally also in place, however, standards for operational monitoring vary considerably between countries. In practice, resources and capacity for consistent operational and surveillance monitoring of rural and informal urban supplies are limited. To improve oversight and management in these settings, we hypothesize that surveillance agencies could increase the use of audit-based water quality data collection from formal urban water suppliers and target the resulting efficiency gains towards increased direct surveillance of rural and informal water supplies. In addition there is a need for capacity building and technology development that supports increased operational monitoring and data reporting from resource-poor settings. © IWA Publishing 2011. Source

Kumpel E.,The Aquaya Institute | Peletz R.,The Aquaya Institute | Bonham M.,The Aquaya Institute | Fay A.,The Aquaya Institute | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2015

Water quality monitoring is important for identifying public health risks and ensuring water safety. However, even when water sources are tested, many institutions struggle to access data for immediate action or long-term decision-making. We analyzed water testing structures among 26 regulated water suppliers and public health surveillance agencies across six African countries and identified four water quality data management typologies. Within each typology, we then analyzed the potential for information and communication technology (ICT) tools to facilitate water quality information flows. A consistent feature of all four typologies was that testing activities occurred in laboratories or offices, not at water sources; therefore, mobile phone-based data management may be most beneficial for institutions that collect data from multiple remote laboratories. We implemented a mobile phone application to facilitate water quality data collection within the national public health agency in Senegal, Service National de l’Hygiène. Our results indicate that using the phones to transmit more than just water quality data will likely improve the effectiveness and sustainability of this type of intervention. We conclude that an assessment of program structure, particularly its data flows, provides a sound starting point for understanding the extent to which ICTs might strengthen water quality monitoring efforts. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Peletz R.,The Aquaya Institute | Kumpel E.,The Aquaya Institute | Bonham M.,The Aquaya Institute | Rahman Z.,The Aquaya Institute | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2016

Water quality information is important for guiding water safety management and preventing water-related diseases. To assess the current status of regulated water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluated testing programs for fecal contamination in 72 institutions (water suppliers and public health agencies) across 10 countries. Data were collected through written surveys, in-person interviews, and analysis of microbial water quality testing levels. Though most institutions did not achieve the testing levels specified by applicable standards or World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines, 85% of institutions had conducted some microbial water testing in the previous year. Institutions were more likely to meet testing targets if they were suppliers (as compared to surveillance agencies), served larger populations, operated in urban settings, and had higher water quality budgets (all p < 0.05). Our results indicate that smaller water providers and rural public health offices will require greater attention and additional resources to achieve regulatory compliance for water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa. The cost-effectiveness of water quality monitoring should be improved by the application of risk-based water management approaches. Efforts to strengthen monitoring capacity should pay greater attention to program sustainability and institutional commitment to water safety. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Torkelson A.A.,University of California at Berkeley | da Silva A.K.,University of California at Berkeley | Love D.C.,University of California at Berkeley | Kim J.Y.,University of California at Berkeley | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2012

Aims: To develop an anti-microbial filter media using an attached quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) and evaluate its performance under conditions relevant to household drinking water treatment in developing countries. Methods and Results: Silica sand was coated with dimethyloctadecyl [3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl] ammonium chloride via covalent silane chemistry. Filter columns packed with coated media were challenged with micro-organisms under different water quality conditions. The anti-bacterial properties were investigated by visualizing Escherichia coli (E. coli) attachment to coated media under fluorescence microscopy combined with a live/dead stain. A 9-cm columns with a filtration velocity of 18 m h-1 achieved log10 removals of 1·7 for E. coli, 1·8 for MS2 coliphage, 1·9 for Poliovirus type 3 and 0·36 for Adenovirus type 2, compared to 0·1-0·3 log10 removals of E. coli and MS2 by uncoated sand. Removal scaled linearly with column length and decreased with increasing ionic strength, flow velocity, filtration time and humic acid presence. Escherichia coli attached to QAC-coated sand were observed to be membrane-permeable, providing evidence of inactivation. Conclusions: Filtration with QAC-coated sand provided higher removal of bacteria and viruses than filtration with uncoated sand. However, major limitations included rapid fouling by micro-organisms and natural organic matter and low removal of viruses PRD1 and Adenovirus 2. Significance and Impact of the Study: QAC-coated media may be promising for household water treatment. However, more research is needed on long-term performance, options to reduce fouling and inactivation mechanisms. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology. Source

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