Basic D.,The Aquaculture Protein Center |
Krogdahl A.,The Aquaculture Protein Center |
Schjolden J.,The Aquaculture Protein Center |
Winberg S.,Uppsala University |
And 5 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2013
The essential amino acid L-tryptophan (Trp) is the immediate precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT). Supplementing Trp through diet has been shown to suppress the neuroendocrine stress response in vertebrates including teleosts. In salmonid fish, adjusting to the social environment as well as habituation to seawater involves the neuroendocrine stress response, suggesting that such environmental factors may modulate the stress-reducing effects of Trp. To date, studies that have investigated the neuroendocrine effects of dietary Trp have only been conducted in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a salmonid species, under conditions featuring social isolation in the freshwater environment. Here, we address the effects of dietary Trp on post-stress plasma cortisol and hypothalamic monoamines in seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), reared at densities relevant for aquaculture. Fish were given feed containing 1, 2, 3 or 4 times the Trp content in normal feed for oneweek. Subsequently, the fish were reintroduced to feed containing the lowest Trp level, corresponding to standard commercial feed for a number of days prior to exposure to an acute confinement stressor. Basal plasma cortisol levels were lower among non-stressed fish at 1 and 10 days post dietary Trp supplementation. By comparison, stressed fish displayed stimulatory post-stress plasma cortisol responses at 1 and 2 days after the Trp regimen was terminated. However, a reversed pattern was observed among these fish at 10 days after Trp treatment. The overall effects of dietary Trp were more pronounced in dopamine (DA) neurochemistry compared to 5-HT in the hypothalamus. The results demonstrate both short- and long-term effects of elevated dietary Trp on the neuroendocrine stress response. These findings suggest that hypothalamic DA may be more involved than 5-HT in the stress reducing effects of Trp in seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon, reared at densities relevant for aquaculture. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.