The American University of Paris is a private, independent, and accredited liberal arts and science university in Paris, France. Founded in 1962, the university is one of the oldest American institutions of higher education in Europe. The university campus consists of eight buildings, centrally located in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, on the Left Bank near the Eiffel Tower, Les Invalides, and the Seine.The university's language of instruction is English, although students must prove a level of proficiency in French prior to graduation. The university has approximately one thousand students, representing over one hundred nationalities, with an average student-to-faculty ratio of fifteen to one. The university's faculty members represent over twenty nationalities, with eighty percent holding doctoral degrees.The university sponsors more than two hundred lectures and seminars every year, exposing students to a wide range of topics. Past lecturers at AUP have included David Lynch, Martha Nussbaum, Jane Goodall, J.M. Coetzee, National Geographic photojournalist Reza, Calvin Klein, and Jean-Pierre Jeunet. Additionally, the university has hosted many international conferences, inviting an aggregate of over a thousand scholars, including Gary Becker, Nobel Prize-recipient of Economics in 1992 and Valéry Giscard d'Estaing and Michel Rocard, former Prime Ministers of France. Wikipedia.
Chen C.,Max Planck Institute for Meteorology |
Haerter J.O.,Copenhagen University |
Hagemann S.,Max Planck Institute for Meteorology |
Piani C.,Abdus Salam International Center For Theoretical Physics |
Piani C.,The American University of Paris
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2011
Global hydrological modeling is affected by three sources of uncertainty: (i) the choice of the global climate model (GCM) used to provide meteorological forcing data; (ii) the choice of future greenhouse gas concentration scenario; and (iii) the choice of the decade used to derive the bias correction parameters. We present a comparative analysis of these uncertainties and compare them to the inter-annual variability. The analysis focuses on discharge, integrated runoff and total precipitation over ten large catchments, representative of different climatic areas of the globe. Results are similar for all catchments, all hydrological variables and throughout the year with few exceptions. We find that the choice of different decadal periods over which to derive the bias correction parameters is a source of comparatively minor uncertainty, while other sources play larger and similarly significant roles. This is true for both the means and the extremes of the studied hydrological variables. © 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Boete C.,The American University of Paris
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2011
Among the hopes for vector-based malaria control, the use of transgenic mosquitoes able to kill malaria parasites is seen as a potential way to interrupt malaria transmission. While this potential solution is gaining some support, the ethical and social aspects related to this high-tech method remain largely unexplored and underestimated. Related to those latter points, the aim of the present survey is to determine how scientists working on malaria and its vector mosquitoes perceive public opinion and how they evaluate public consultations on their research. This study has been performed through a questionnaire addressing questions related to the type of research, the location, the nationality and the perception of the public involvement by scientists. The results suggest that even if malaria researchers agree to interact with a non-scientific audience, they (especially the ones from the global North) remain quite reluctant to have their research project submitted in a jargon-free version to the evaluation and the prior-agreement by a group of non-specialists. The study, by interrogating the links between the scientific community and the public from the perspective of the scientists, reveals the importance of fostering structures and processes that could lead to a better involvement of a non specialist public in the actual debates linking scientific, technological and public health issues in Africa. © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Piani C.,The American University of Paris |
Haerter J.O.,Copenhagen University
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2012
In common climate model bias-correction procedures, temperature and precipitation are corrected separately, thereby degrading the dynamical link represented within the model. We propose a methodology that advances the state-of-the-art by correcting not just the 1D intensity distributions separately but the full two-dimensional statistical distribution. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed method, it is applied to the REMO regional climate model output using point measurements of hourly temperature and precipitation from 6 weather stations over Germany as observations. A standard cross-validation is performed by dividing the data into two nonoverlapping 15 year periods. Results show that the methodology effectively improves the temperature-precipitation copula in the validation period, unlike separate 1D temperature and precipitation corrections which, by construction, leave the copula unchanged. An unexpected result is that a relatively small number (<5) of temperature bins are required to achieve significant improvements in the copula. Results are similar for all stations. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Molenaar I.,University of Amsterdam |
Roda C.,The American University of Paris |
Van Boxtel C.,University of Amsterdam |
Sleegers P.,University of Twente
Computers and Education | Year: 2012
The aim of this study is to test the effects of dynamically scaffolding social regulation of middle school students working in a computer-based learning environment. Dyads in the scaffolding condition (N = 56) are supported with computer-generated scaffolds and students in the control condition (N = 54) do not receive scaffolds. The scaffolds are dynamically adjusted to dyads' progress with an attention management system. The scaffolds support two aspects of socially regulated learning namely the metacognitive and cognitive activities. We analyzed the effects of dynamic scaffolding on dyads' performance, their perception of the learning environment and students' knowledge acquisition. We found that scaffolding had a positive effect on the dyads' learning performance, but did not affect students' domain knowledge. The repeated measurements of perception of the learning environment showed that dyads in the experimental condition were more positive about their teachers and their collaborators than students in the control condition. With respect to their perception of the software and the 3D embodied agent delivering the scaffolds, we found a stronger decrease of appreciation over time in the scaffolding condition compared to the control condition. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roda C.,The American University of Paris |
Perry S.,The American University of Paris
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2014
As the progress of mobile phone technology accelerates throughout Europe, the regulatory framework necessary for its safe and extended use has been slow to develop. This article analyses the relationship between scientific knowledge and regulation concerning the heath effects of increasing emissions of electromagnetic fields (EMF). From a conservationist perspective, no other example of industrial impact on the natural environment has achieved such extended penetration so quickly. From a theoretical standpoint, stakeholders are faced with a difficult choice between comprehensive risk assessment versus immediate application of the precautionary principle. By exploring the interaction between citizens, governments, and international bodies, we first analyze the challenges faced by regulators in the presence of uncertain scientific knowledge and standards of measurement. We then highlight the inadequacy of current risk assessment parameters. Lastly, within the context of State and European regulation of EMF exposure, we expand scholarship on the human rights framework to protect vulnerable populations from environmental pollution. We conclude that, because scientific knowledge is incomplete, a precautionary approach is better suited to State obligations under international human rights law. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Sellar C.,University of Mississippi |
McEwen L.,The American University of Paris
European Urban and Regional Studies | Year: 2011
Although much has been written on the process of Europeanization, there is a lack of research on its nuances and implications. The academic literature to date focuses on debating the contradictions inherent within the politics of Europeanization without attempting to conceptualize what those contradictions mean in actual practice. This paper draws upon the work of Beck and Grande to analyze the myriad of contradictions shaping all levels of European space. To do so, this paper examines concrete instances of cosmopolitan practice that actually promote the maintenance of the nation-state reality currently characterizing the European Union. These examples show that, at the intersection of the subnational/supranational and supranational/national levels, contradictions are instrumentalized, creating bottom-up and top-down flows of power and influence between all European scales. The evidence presented in this paper indicates that these flows are unintended side-effects that drive Europeanization processes in a way that allows for the simultaneous promotion and regulation of European diversity. This implies that carefully managed and instrumentalized contradictions are powerful engines of Europeanization that actively transform European governance. © The Author(s) 2011.
Stojanov G.,The American University of Paris
AAAI Fall Symposium - Technical Report | Year: 2014
In this brief communication I first give an overview of for different branches in creativity research: investigating psychological/cognitive mechanisms of creativity; designing creativity support tools; metaphysical/philosophical/anthropological explorations on the nature of creativity; and computational models of creativity. Then I discuss their relations and complementarity and finally, in the conclusion, I suggest that an attempt to create a unified framework for creativity research would benefit the field as a whole. Copyright © 2014, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (www.aaai.org). All rights reserved.
Schiff B.,The American University of Paris
New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development | Year: 2014
In this introductory chapter, I place Bertram J. Cohler's () seminal essay Personal Narrative and Life Course in the context of the history of narrative psychology and developmental theory. I describe four theses from Personal Narrative and Life Course, which impacted developmental theory and research: (a) the self is a narrative project, (b) developmental periods have a distinct narrative character, (c) narratives are always told in (personal and historical) time, and (d) persons strive for coherence. I briefly describe the chapters to follow. However, my main goal is to argue for the implications of narrative for developmental science. Following Cohler, I argue that narrative has a central role to play in understanding human lives and can provide substantial benefit to developmental theory and research. A narrative perspective allows for a complex and nuanced description of developmental phenomena that accounts for the subjective and unpredictable nature of human lives. The narrative interpretation of experience is a primary human activity that alters the meaning of experience and potentially sets development on a new course, rendering the prediction of developmental outcomes a difficult venture. The narrative perspective provides detailed insights into how development unfolds, how persons actually interpret and reinterpret life in time and place, and can help psychologists to engage fundamental questions about the meaning of experience. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Stojanov G.,The American University of Paris |
Indurkhya B.,AGH University of Science and Technology
AAAI Spring Symposium - Technical Report | Year: 2013
We believe that current research in creativity (especially in artificial intelligence and to a great extent psychology) focuses too much on the product and on exceptional (big-C) creativity. In this paper we want to argue that creative thinking and creative behavior result from the continuation of typical human cognitive development and that by looking into the early stages of this development, we can learn more about creativity. Furthermore, we wish to see analogy as a core mechanism in human cognitive development rather than a special skill among many. Some developmental psychology results that support this claim are reviewed. Analogy and metaphor are also seen as central for the creative process. Whereas mainstream research in artificial creativity and computational models of reasoning by analogy stresses the importance of matching the structure between the source and the target domains, we suggest that perceptual similarities play a much more important role, at least when it comes to creative problem solving. We provide some empirical data to support these claims and discuss their consequences. Copyright © 2013, AAAI Press.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2013.1.5 | Award Amount: 1.31M | Year: 2013
The mission of PRIPARE is twofold: facilitate the application of a privacy and security -by-design methodology that will contribute to the advent of unhindered usage of Internet against disruptions, censorship and surveillance, support its practice by the ICT research community to prepare for industry practice; foster risk management culture through educational material targeted to a diversity of stakeholders. To this end PRIPARE will\n\tspecify a privacy and security-by-design software and systems engineering methodology, using the combined expertise of the research community and taking into account multiple viewpoints (advocacy, legal, engineering, business),\n\tprepare best practices material (guidelines, patterns, success stories) for the development and implementation of products and services of ICT-based systems and use-cases in the area of cloud computing, mobile services and the management of cyber incidents, \n\tsupport FP7 and Horizon 2020 research projects through training workshops and practical support in applying PRIPARE best practices in their environment.\n\tprovide educational material on approaches for risk management of privacy and create awareness on the need for risk management culture among users. Material consistent with PRIPARE methodology will be structured in a modular way in order to fit to different targets (policy makers, users, ICT students and professional). \n\tidentify gaps and provide recommendations on privacy and security-by-design practices, support of unhindered usage of Internet and on the creation of a risk management culture. A research agenda will be proposed.\nPRIPARE consists of a consortium of 11 partners with strong links with the privacy community (data protection authorities/policy makers, privacy advocacy organisations, technology, engineering). In order to prepare for the longer term adoption by the industry, a representative advisory board will be set up. The support action duration is 24 months.