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Tao Y.-F.,Soochow University of China | Lu J.,Soochow University of China | Du X.-J.,The 5th Hospital of Chinese PLA | Sun L.-C.,Peking Union Medical College | And 12 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2012

Background: Survivin, a member of the family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, functions as a key regulator of mitosis and programmed cell death. YM155, a novel molecular targeted agent, suppresses survivin, which is overexpressed in many tumor types. The aim of this study was to determine the antitumor activity of YM155 in SK-NEP-1 cells.Methods: SK-NEP-1 cell growth in vitro and in vivo was assessed by MTT and nude mice experiments. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis was used to detect apoptosis in cell culture. Then gene expression profile of tumor cells treated with YM155 was analyzed with real-time PCR arrays. We then analyzed the expression data with MEV (Multi Experiment View) cluster software. Datasets representing genes with altered expression profile derived from cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool.Results: YM155 treatment resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1cells in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V assay, cell cycle, and activation of caspase-3 demonstrates that YM155 induced apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 cells. YM155 significantly inhibited growth of SK-NEP-1 xenografts (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.45 ± 0.77 cm3; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.95 ± 0.55 cm3) compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 3.70 ± 2.4 cm3) or PBS group cells (PBS: 3.78 ± 2.20 cm3, ANOVA P < 0.01). YM155 treatment decreased weight of tumors (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.05 ± 0.24 g; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.72 ± 0.17 g) compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 2.06 ± 0.38 g) or PBS group cells (PBS: 2.36 ± 0.43 g, ANOVA P < 0.01). Real-time PCR array analysis showed between Test group and control group there are 32 genes significantly up-regulated and 54 genes were significantly down-regulated after YM155 treatment. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) showed cell death was the highest rated network with 65 focus molecules and the significance score of 44. The IPA analysis also groups the differentially expressed genes into biological mechanisms that are related to cell death, cellular function maintenance, cell morphology, carbohydrate metabolism and cellular growth and proliferation. Death receptor signaling (3.87E-19), TNFR1 signaling, induction of apoptosis by HIV1, apoptosis signaling and molecular mechanisms of cancer came out to be the top four most significant pathways. IPA analysis also showed top molecules up-regulated were BBC3, BIRC3, BIRC8, BNIP1, CASP7, CASP9, CD5, CDKN1A, CEBPG and COL4A3, top molecules down-regulated were ZNF443, UTP11L, TP73, TNFSF10, TNFRSF1B, TNFRSF25, TIAF1, STK17A, SST and SPP1, upstream regulator were NR3C1, TP53, dexamethasone , TNF and Akt.Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that YM155 treatment resulted in apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1cells. YM155 had significant role and little side effect in the treatment of SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors. Real-time PCR array analysis firstly showed expression profile of genes dyes-regulated after YM155 treatment. IPA analysis also represents new molecule mechanism of YM155 treatment, such as NR3C1 and dexamethasone may be new target of YM155. And our results may provide new clues of molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by YM155. © 2012 Tao et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Lu J.,Soochow University of China | Tao Y.-F.,Soochow University of China | Li Z.-H.,Soochow University of China | Cao L.,Soochow University of China | And 15 more authors.
Cancer Cell International | Year: 2015

Background: Wilms' tumor (WT) is one of the most common malignant neoplasms of the urinary tract in children. Anaplastic histology (unfavorable histology) accounts for about 10% of whole WTs, and it is the single most important histologic predictor of treatment response and survival in patients with WT; however, until now the molecular basis of this phenotype is not very clearly. Methods: A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array was designed and tested. Next, the gene expression profile of pediatric anaplastic histology WT and normal adjacent tissues were analyzed. These expression data were anlyzed with Multi Experiment View (MEV) cluster software further. Datasets representing genes with altered expression profiles derived from cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Tool (IPA). Results: 88 real-time PCR primer pairs for quantitative gene expression analysis of key genes involved in pediatric anaplastic histology WT were designed and tested. The gene expression profile of pediatric anaplastic histology WT is significantly different from adjacent normal controls; we identified 15 genes that are up-regulated and 16 genes that are down-regulated in the former. To investigate biological interactions of these differently regulated genes, datasets representing genes with altered expression profiles were imported into the IPA for further analysis, which revealed three significant networks: Cancer, Hematological Disease, and Gene Expression, which included 27 focus molecules and a significance score of 43. The IPA analysis also grouped the differentially expressed genes into biological mechanisms related to Cell Death and Survival 1.15E-12, Cellular Development 2.84E-11, Cellular Growth and Proliferation 2.84E-11, Gene Expression 4.43E-10, and DNA Replication, Recombination, and Repair 1.39E-07. The important upstream regulators of pediatric anaplastic histology WT were TP53 and TGFβ1 signaling (P = 1.15E-14 and 3.79E-13, respectively). Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that the gene expression profile of pediatric anaplastic histology WT is significantly different from adjacent normal tissues with real-time PCR array. We identified some genes that are dysregulated in pediatric anaplastic histology WT for the first time, such as HDAC7, and IPA analysis showed the most important pathways for pediatric anaplastic histology WT are TP53 and TGFβ1 signaling. This work may provide new clues into the molecular mechanisms behind pediatric anaplastic histology WT. © 2015 Lu et al. Source


Tao Y.-F.,Soochow University of China | Fang F.,Soochow University of China | Hu S.-Y.,Soochow University of China | Lu J.,Soochow University of China | And 15 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2015

Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the second-most common form of leukemia in children. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns are a characteristic feature of AML. GATA4 has been suggested to be a tumor suppressor gene regulated by promoter hypermethylation in various types of human cancers although the expression and promoter methylation of GATA4 in pediatric AML is still unclear. Methods: Transcriptional expression levels of GATA4 were evaluated by semi-quantitative and real-time PCR. Methylation status was investigated by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfate genomic sequencing (BGS). The prognostic significance of GATA4 expression and promoter methylation was assessed in 105 cases of Chinese pediatric acute myeloid leukemia patients with clinical follow-up records. Results: MSP and BGS analysis showed that the GATA4 gene promoter is hypermethylated in AML cells, such as the HL-60 and MV4-11 human myeloid leukemia cell lines. 5-Aza treatment significantly upregulated GATA4 expression in HL-60 and MV4-11 cells. Aberrant methylation of GATA4 was observed in 15.0 % (3/20) of the normal bone marrow control samples compared to 56.2 % (59/105) of the pediatric AML samples. GATA4 transcript levels were significantly decreased in AML patients (33.06 ± 70.94; P = 0.011) compared to normal bone marrow/idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura controls (116.76 ± 105.39). GATA4 promoter methylation was correlated with patient leukocyte counts (WBC, white blood cells) (P = 0.035) and minimal residual disease MRD (P = 0.031). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed significantly shorter overall survival time in patients with GATA4 promoter methylation (P = 0.014). Conclusions: Epigenetic inactivation of GATA4 by promoter hypermethylation was observed in both AML cell lines and pediatric AML samples; our study implicates GATA4 as a putative tumor suppressor gene in pediatric AML. In addition, our findings imply that GATA4 promoter methylation is correlated with WBC and MRD. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed significantly shorter overall survival in pediatric AML with GATA4 promoter methylation but multivariate analysis shows that it is not an independent factor. However, further research focusing on the mechanism of GATA4 in pediatric leukemia is required. © 2015 Tao et al. Source


Tao Y.-F.,Soochow University of China | Xu L.-X.,Soochow University of China | Lu J.,Soochow University of China | Cao L.,Soochow University of China | And 17 more authors.
Journal of Translational Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the second most common form of leukemia in children. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns are a characteristic feature in various tumors, including AML. Metallothionein III (MT3) is a tumor suppresser reported to show promoter hypermethylated in various cancers. However, the expression and molecular function of MT3 in pediatric AML is unclear.Methods: Eleven human leukemia cell lines and 41 pediatric AML samples and 20 NBM/ITP (Norma bone marrow/Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura) control samples were analyzed. Transcription levels of MT3 were evaluated by semi-quantitative and real-time PCR. MT3 methylation status was determined by methylation specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite genomic sequencing (BSG). The molecular mechanism of MT3 was investigated by apoptosis assays and PCR array analysis.Results: The MT3 promoter was hypermethylated in leukemia cell lines. More CpG's methylated of MT3 was observed 39.0% pediatric AML samples compared to 10.0% NBM controls. Transcription of MT3 was also significantly decreased in AML samples compared to NBM/ITP controls (P < 0.001); patients with methylated MT3 exhibited lower levels of MT3 expression compared to those with unmethylated MT3 (P = 0.049). After transfection with MT3 lentivirus, proliferation was significantly inhibited in AML cells in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Annexin V assay showed that apoptosis was significantly upregulated MT3-overexpressing AML cells compared to controls. Real-time PCR array analysis revealed 34 dysregulated genes that may be implicated in MT3 overexpression and apoptosis in AML, including FOXO1.Conclusion: MT3 may be a putative tumor suppressor gene in pediatric AML. Epigenetic inactivation of MT3 via promoter hypermethylation was observed in both AML cell lines and pediatric AML samples. Overexpression of MT3 may inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in AML cells. FOXO1 was dysregulated in MT3-overexpressing cells, offering an insight into the mechanism of MT3-induced apoptosis. However, further research is required to determine the underlying molecular details. © 2014 Tao et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Zhang L.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Yuan X.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Chen Y.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Du X.-J.,The 5th Hospital of Chinese PLA | And 2 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2013

Aim: As a novel molecularly targeting agent for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), Gefitinib can block its tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Genetic variations in EGFR may affect its protein function or expression and lead to diverse outcomes in NSCLC patients after Gefitinib therapy. Therefore, this prospective study examined whether EGFR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with different survival time in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with Gefitinib. Methods: One hundred and twenty-eight patients with stage IIIB or IV lung adenocarcinoma receiving Gefitinib target therapy between 2008 and 2010 were recruited in this study. Six EGFR haplotype-tagging SNPs were genotyped by the Sequenom MassArray system. Survival by different genotypes was compared using Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to estimate the effect of prognostic factors on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Results: After the median 16.6. months of follow-up, the unfavorable EGFR rs2293347AA or GA genotype was significantly correlated with shorter OS (AA vs. GG: 2.0 vs. 21.0. months; hazard ratio (HR) = 2.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-5.56; P= 0.036; GA vs. GG: 15.0 vs. 21.0. months; HR = 1.75, 95%CI = 1.08-2.86, P= 0.025) compared with the favorable rs2293347GG genotype. The prognostic significance of EGFR rs4947492 polymorphism on OS also existed (GG carriers vs. AA carriers: median OS = 24.6 vs. 14.9. months, HR = 0.29, 95%CI = 0.10-0.83, P= 0.021). No significant associations were found among other EGFR SNPs and survival. Conclusion: EGFR rs2293347 and rs4947492 SNPs might be potential predictive markers of OS in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with Gefitinib. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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