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Yang Z.,Chongqing Medical University | Liu B.,Chongqing Medical University | Zhong L.,Chongqing Medical University | Shen H.,The 476th Hospital of PLA | And 4 more authors.
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology | Year: 2015

Aims: Much evidence demonstrates that Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4)-mediated microglial activation is an important contributor to the inflammatory injury in intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). However, the exact mechanism of TLR4-mediated microglial activation induced by ICH is not clear. In addition, microglial autophagy is involved other forms of nervous system injury. To explore the relationship between TLR4 and autophagy, we investigated the role of TLR4-mediated microglial autophagy and inflammation in ICH. Methods: We detected TLR4 expression, autophagy and inflammation of microglia treated with lysed erythrocytes in vitro, and observed the cerebral water content and neurological deficit of ICH mice [TLR4-/- and wild type (WT)] in vivo. Results: We found that lysed erythrocyte treated microglia (TLR4-/-) had reduced autophagy and inflammation compared with microglia (WT) in vitro. ICH mice (TLR4-/-) had reduced water content and neurological injury compared with ICH mice (WT). The autophagy inhibitor (3-methyladenine) decreased microglial activation and inflammatory injury due to lysed erythrocyte treatment, and improved the neurological function of ICH mice. Conclusions: Taken together, these data suggested that TLR4 induced autophagy contributed to the microglial activation and inflammatory injury and might provide novel therapeutic interventions for ICH. © 2014 British Neuropathological Society.


Yuan B.,The 476th Hospital of PLA | Xian R.,The 476th Hospital of PLA | Wu X.,The 476th Hospital of PLA | Jing J.,The 476th Hospital of PLA | And 3 more authors.
Immunobiology | Year: 2012

Previous evidence suggested that the stress protein grp170 can function as a highly efficient molecular chaperone, binding to large protein substrates and acting as a potent vaccine against specific tumors when purified from the same tumor. In addition, Pokemon can be found in almost all malignant tumor cells and is regarded to be a promising candidate for the treatment of tumors. However, the potential of the grp170-Pokemon chaperone complex has not been well described. In the present study, the natural chaperone complex between grp170 and the Pokemon was formed by heat shock, and its immunogenicity was detected by ELISPOT and 51Cr-release assays in vitro and by tumor bearing models in vivo. Our results demonstrated that the grp170-Pokemon chaperone complex could elicit T cell responses as determined by ELISPOT and 51Cr-release assays. In addition, immunized C57BL/6 mice were challenged with subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of Lewis cancer cells to induce primary tumors. Treatment of mice with the grp170-Pokemon chaperone complex also significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the life span of tumor-bearing mice. Our results indicated that the grp170-Pokemon chaperone complex might represent a powerful approach to tumor immunotherapy and have significant potential for clinical application. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH.


Yang Z.,Chongqing Medical University | Zhong L.,Chongqing Medical University | Zhong S.,Chongqing Medical University | Xian R.,The 476th Hospital of PLA | Yuan B.,The 476th Hospital of PLA
Experimental and Molecular Pathology | Year: 2015

Much evidence demonstrated that autophagy played an important role in neural inflammation response after ischemia stroke. However, the specific effect of microglia autophagy in cerebral ischemia is still unknown. In the current study, we constructed focal cerebral ischemia model by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in mice. We detected microglia autophagy and inflammation response in vivo, and observed infarct brain areas, edema formation, and neurological deficits of mice. We found that pMCAO induced microglia autophagy and inflammatory response. The suppression of autophagy using either pharmacologic inhibitor (3-MA) not only decreased the microglia autophagy and inflammatory response, but also significantly decreased infarct size, edema formation and neurological deficits in vivo. Taken together, these results suggested that cerebral ischemia induced microglia autophagy contributed to ischemic neural inflammation and injury. In addition, our findings also provided novel therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Yang Z.,Chongqing Medical University | Zhong L.,Chongqing Medical University | Zhong S.,Chongqing Medical University | Xian R.,The 476th Hospital of PLA | Yuan B.,The 476th Hospital of PLA
Molecular Immunology | Year: 2015

Much evidence demonstrates that microglia mediated inflammatory responses play an important role in brain injury in ischemia. miRNA is the important factor in regulation of inflammation. However, the effect of miRNA in microglia mediated inflammatory responses has not been well studied. In the study, we demonstrate that miR-203 negatively regulates ischemia induced microglia activation by targeting MyD88, an important adapter protein involved in most Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) pathways. Through negative feedback, enforced expression of miR-203 or MyD88 siRNA silencing inhibits downstream NF-κβ signaling and microglia activation, thereby alleviating neuronal injury. These findings reveal that miR-203 represents a novel target regulating neuroinflammation and brain injury, thus offering a new therapeutical strategy for cerebral hypoxic diseases. © 2015.


Yang Z.,Chongqing Medical University | Zhong L.,Chongqing Medical University | Xian R.,The 476th Hospital of PLA | Yuan B.,The 476th Hospital of PLA
Molecular Immunology | Year: 2015

NLRP3 inflammasome, the multimeric protein complexes involved in the processing of IL-1β through Caspase-1 cleavage, facilitates the inflammatory response. The control and activation of NLRP3 after intracerebral hemorrhage have not been fully studied. In the current study, we explore the specific microRNA which could regulate the NLRP3 inflammasome and inflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage. We detected the inverse relationship between the expression of miR-223 and NLRP3. We found that NLRP3 mRNA contains conserved miR-223 binding sites in its 3' UTR, and miR-223 could directly regulate NLRP3 expression through these 3' UTR sites. Our results indicate that miR-223 could downregulate NLRP3 to inhibit inflammation through caspase-1 and IL-1β, reduce brain edema and improve neurological functions. Together, miR-223 may be a vital regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The results suggest that miR-223 represents a novel target reducing the inflammatory response, and offers a new therapeutical strategy following ICH. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Yuan B.,The 476th Hospital of PLA | Shen H.,The 476th Hospital of PLA | Lin L.,The 476th Hospital of PLA | Su T.,The 476th Hospital of PLA | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neuroimmunology | Year: 2015

Numerous evidence have shown that microglia mediated inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Therefore anti-inflammation therapy represents a potentially promising approach to ICH. Recently, NLRP3 inflammasome was discovered to facilitate the inflammatory response. However, the effect of NLRP3 inflammasome after ICH has not been fully studied. To explore the potential of NLRP3 inflammasome, we detected NLRP3 expression, inflammation, brain edema and neurological functions in vitro and in vivo. We found that ICH activated the NLRP3 inflammasome and inflammation. However, NLRP3 RNAi could attenuate inflammation and brain injury after ICH. Therefore, the findings suggested that recombinant adenovirus encoding NLRP3 RNAi might be valuable as a potential strategy for anti-inflammation therapy in ICH. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Yang Z.,Chongqing Medical University | Zhong S.,Chongqing Medical University | Liu Y.,The 476th Hospital of PLA | Shen H.,The 476th Hospital of PLA | Yuan B.,The 476th Hospital of PLA
Journal of Neuroimmunology | Year: 2015

Microglia mediated neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Therefore, the negative feedback immune mechanism to keep microglia homeostasis and inhibit the related inflammatory injury is important. Scavenger receptor A (SRA), a pattern recognition molecule, is a physiologic negative regulator of immune consequences. However, its role in microglia mediated immune response has not been well defined. In this study, we detected SRA expression and inflammatory response of microglia treated with erythrocyte lysate in vitro, and observed the cerebral water content and neurological deficit of ICH mice in vivo. We found that SRA was highly expressed in erythrocyte lysate treated microglia. Interestingly, genetic SRA ablation increased microglia activation and cytokine production, and sensitized mice to ICH induced neuron injury. In addition, we adoptive transferred microglia (WT) into ICH mice (SRA. -/-), and found that the ICH-induced inflammation injury was effectively ameliorated. Therefore, the results demonstrated that SRA could attenuate microglia mediated inflammation injury in ICH. In addition, SRA mediated negative feedback mechanism in neuroimmune homeostasis might provide a novel therapeutical strategy for ICH. Scavenger receptor SRA restrains T cell activation and protects against concanavalin A-induced hepatic injury. © 2014.


PubMed | Chongqing Medical University and The 476th Hospital of PLA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular neurobiology | Year: 2016

Previous study demonstrates that intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) promotes microglia activation and inflammation. However, the exact mechanism of microglia activation induced by ICH is not clear. In this experiment, microglia autophagy was examined using electron microscopy, conversion of light chain 3(LC3), and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining to detect autophagic vacuoles. We found that ICH induced microglia autophagy and activation. The suppression of autophagy using either pharmacologic inhibitors (3-methyladenine, bafilomycin A1) or RNA interference in essential autophagy genes (BECN1 and ATG5) decreased the microglia activation and inflammation in ICH. Moreover, autophagy inhibitors reduced brain damage in ICH. In conclusion, these data indicate that ICH contributes to microglia autophagic activation through BECN1 and ATG5 and provide the therapeutical strategy for ICH.


Yuan B.,The 476th Hospital of PLA | Zhao L.,Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Command | Fu F.,The 476th Hospital of PLA | Liu Y.,The 476th Hospital of PLA | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Immunology | Year: 2014

Accumulative evidence demonstrates that multiple sclerosis (MS) is caused by activation of myelin Ag-reactive CD4+ T cells. Therefore, the CD4+ T cells specific for myelin Ag may be the important therapeutical target of MS. The novel coinhibitory receptor B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) may have a regulatory role in maintaining peripheral tolerance, however, its role in MS is still unknown. In this study, a novel nanoparticle containing MOG peptide with BTLA was designed and transduced into dendritic cells (DCs), and MOG peptide-induced EAE mice were adminstrated with the genetically modified DCs in vivo. The results demonstrated that modified DCs significantly enhanced the proportion of Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells, increased IL-10 and TGF-β cytokine secretion, while decreased IL-2 and IFN-γ cytokine secretion. Furthermore, modified DCs supressed the CD4+ T cell response to MOG, cell infiltration into spinal cord, and the severity of EAE. In contrast, immune response to irrelevant exogenous Ag was not impaired by treatment with modified DCs. These findings suggested that DCs transduced with nanoparticle could induce specific CD4+ T-cells tolerance, which provided a promising therapeutic means to negatively manipulate immune response for autoimmune diseases without inhibition of the immune response to irrelevant Ag. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Yang Z.,The 476th Hospital of PLA | Liu Y.,The 476th Hospital of PLA | Yuan F.,The 476th Hospital of PLA | Li Z.,The 476th Hospital of PLA | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Immunology | Year: 2014

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) causes morbidity and mortality and commonly follows the reperfusion after an ischemic event. Microglial activation mediated cytokine and protease secretion contributes to brain injury in ICH. Previous studies have shown that sinomenine possesses potent immunoregulatory properties. However, little is known about its exact role in ICH. In the present study, to investigate the effect of sinomenine on microglial cells inflammation, we treated ICH-challenged BV2 microglial cells with sinomenine in vitro, and explored its neuroprotection role in intracerebral hemorrhage in vivo. Changes in inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NF-κB activation NF-κB were observed. In addition, the neurological deficit and cerebral water content of ICH mice were studied. The results demonstrated that sinomenine could inhibit the release of these cytokines and attenuate ROS production in a dose-dependent manner, and reduce NF-κB activation. Furthermore, sinomenine markedly inhibited cerebral water content and neurological deficit. In conclusion, our findings suggest that sinomenine played the protective effects through inhibition of microglial inflammation, and the findings also provided a novel therapy to treat ICH induced brain injury. © 2014.

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