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Zhang D.,The 302 Hospital of PLA | Li P.,Peking University | Chen M.,The 302 Hospital of PLA | Liu L.,Shanxi Medical University | And 3 more authors.
Abdominal Imaging | Year: 2015

Objectives: To investigate the diagnostic performance of the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography for the assessment of the liver fibrosis in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Methods: We included 112 patients with ALD in whom liver biopsy, ARFI elastography, and aspartate-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) measurements were performed. Results: ARFI elastography correlated significantly with histological fibrosis (r = 0.685, P < 0.001) in patients with ALD. The diagnostic accuracies expressed as areas under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves for ARFI elastography and APRI were 0.846 and 0.763 for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis (S ≥ 2), 0.875 and 0.688 for the diagnosis of severe fibrosis (S ≥ 3), and 0.893 and 0.648 for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis, respectively. The AUROC values of ARFI elastography were significantly better than those of APRI for predicting severe fibrosis (P = 0.02) and cirrhosis (P = 0.04). The optimum cutoff values for ARFI elastography were 1.33 m/s for S ≥ 2, 1.40 m/s for S ≥ 3, and 1.65 m/s for S = 4 in patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels; these decreased to 1.24 m/s for S ≥ 2, 1.27 m/s for S ≥ 3, and 1.41 m/s for S = 4 in patients with normal ALT. Conclusion: ARFI elastography is an acceptable method for predicting the severity of fibrosis in patients with ALD. ARFI elastography is influenced by elevated aminotransferase levels in ALD. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

PubMed | The 302 Hospital of PLA and Peking University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2015

This study examined the effects of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) small interfering RNA (siRNA) on cardiac function following myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Thirty-six adult Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three equivalent groups. An acute MI model was established by ligating the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery and confirmed by electrocardiogram. Recombinant NSF-siRNA adenovirus (experimental), negative adenovirus (control), and normal saline were injected near the infarcted area of the left ventricle in each respective group. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured with a noninvasive ultrasonic cardiogram. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and the maximum rate of rise in left ventricular pressure (+dp/dt max) were measured using the BL-420 Biological Functional Experimental System. Hearts were sectioned and stained with 2,3,5,-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) to observe the MI area. Two weeks after surgery, LVEF in the experimental group (46.0 7.5%) was higher than control (34.0 6.0%) and saline (37.5 4.5%) group LVEFs (P < 0.05), whereas LVEDP was the lowest in the experimental group (18.51 6.87 vs 29.47 9.94 and 26.58 8.97 mmHg, respectively) (P < 0.05). The +dp/dt max was also higher in the experimental group (9.74 1.16 vs 4.33 1.19 and 5.24 1.53 mmHg/s x 10(3), respectively) (P < 0.05); however, the MI area did not differ significantly between groups. Local injection of an adenovirus-mediated NSF-siRNA expression vector near infarcted areas improved cardiac function two weeks after MI, but had no impact on the MI area.

PubMed | Capital Medical University, The 302 Hospital of PLA, Zhengzhou University and Peking University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology | Year: 2016

To investigate the changes in red blood cell count in patients with different liver diseases and the correlation between red blood cell count and degree of liver damage.The clinical data of 1427 patients with primary liver cancer, 172 patients with liver cirrhosis, and 185 patients with hepatitis were collected, and the Child-Pugh class was determined for all patients. The differences in red blood cell count between patients with different liver diseases were retrospectively analyzed, and the correlation between red blood cell count and liver function status was investigated. The Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, rank sum test, Spearman rank sum correlation test, and chi-square test were performed for different types of data.Red blood cell count showed significant differences between patients with chronic hepatitis, liver cancer, and liver cirrhosis and was highest in patients with chronic hepatitis and lowest in patients with liver cirrhosis (P < 0.05). In the patients with liver cirrhosis, red blood cell count tended to decrease in patients with a higher Child-Pugh class (P < 0.05).For patients with liver cirrhosis, red blood cell count can reflect the degree of liver damage, which may contribute to an improved liver function prediction model for these patients.

PubMed | Medical University of South Carolina, The 302 Hospital of PLA, The Sixth Peoples Hospital of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and Peking Union Medical College
Type: | Journal: Vaccine | Year: 2016

Studies have shown that HIV infection is associated with an impaired influenza vaccine response. We examined the role of cellular phenotypes and function in influenza vaccine responsiveness in healthy controls and aviremic HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral treatment (ART).16 healthy controls and 26 ART+ aviremic HIV+ subjects were enrolled in the current study. Blood was collected at pre-vaccination (D0), and on days 7-10 (D7) and 14-21 (D14) following the 2013-2014 seasonal influenza vaccine administrations. Subjects were classified as responders if neutralizing titers against H1N1 virus increased 4-fold at D14 compared to D0. A serial analysis of B and CD4+ T cell frequencies and activation was performed on D0 and D7 by flow cytometry.9 of 26 (34.6%) HIV-infected individuals and 7 of 16 (43.8%) healthy controls were classified as responders to influenza vaccines. Total B cell apoptosis (annexin V) was increased on D7 post-vaccination in non-responders but not in responders among both controls and HIV+ subjects. Surface CD80 expression on memory B cells and intracellular CD40L expression on memory CD4+ T cells were induced on D7 in responders of controls but not in non-responders. The CD80 and CD40L induction was not demonstrable in HIV-infected subjects regardless of responders and non-responders. Memory CD4+ T cell cycling tended to increase on D7 in the four study groups but did not achieve significance. All the other parameters were indistinguishable between responders and non-responders, regardless of HIV-infection status.The perturbation of activation and apoptotic induction on B cells or CD4+ T cells after seasonal influenza vaccination in non-responders and HIV-infected subjects may help understand the mechanism of impaired vaccine responsiveness.

Zhang D.,The 302 Hospital of PLA | Chen M.,The 302 Hospital of PLA | Wang R.,The 302 Hospital of PLA | Liu Y.,The 302 Hospital of PLA | And 2 more authors.
Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2015

The aims of this study were to compare the performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography and transient elastography (TE) in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and to evaluate the impact of elevated alanine transaminase levels on liver stiffness assessment using ARFI elastography. One hundred eighty consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis B were enrolled in this study and evaluated with respect to histologic and biochemical features. All patients underwent ARFI elastography and TE. ARFI elastography and TE correlated significantly with histologically assessed fibrosis (r=0.599, p<0.001, for ARFI elastography; r=0.628, p<0.001, for TE) and necro-inflammatory activity (r=0.591, p<0.001, for ARFI elastography; r=0.616, p<0.001, for TE). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for ARFI elastography and TE were 0.764 and 0.813 (p=0.302, ≥stage 2), 0.852 and 0.852 (. p=1.000, ≥stage3) and 0.825 and 0.799 (p=0.655, S=4), respectively. The optimum cutoff values for ARFI elastography were 1.63m/s for stage ≥2, 1.74m/s for stage ≥3 and 2.00m/s for stage 4 in patients for whom alanine transaminase levels were evaluated. The cutoff values decreased to 1.24m/s for≥stage 2, 1.32m/s for≥stage 3 and 1.41m/s for stage 4 in patients with normal alanine transaminase levels. ARFI elastography may be a reliable method for diagnosing the stage of liver fibrosis with diagnostic performance similar to that of TE in patients with chronic hepatitis B. In addition, liver stiffness values obtained with ARFI elastography, like those obtained with TE, may be influenced by alanine transaminase levels. © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.

PubMed | Medical University of South Carolina, Capital Medical University, The 302 Hospital of PLA and University of Alabama at Birmingham
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2017

The role of natural killer (NK) cell function in HIV disease especially in the setting of long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) and viral suppression is not fully understood. In the current study, we have investigated NK cell activation in healthy controls and aviremic ART-treated HIV+ subjects with different degrees of immune restoration. We performed a cross sectional study in 12 healthy controls and 24 aviremic ART-treated HIV-infected subjects including 13 HIV+ subjects with CD4+ T cells above 500 cells/L defined as immunologic responders and 11 HIV+ subjects with CD4+ T cells below 350 cells/L defined as immunologic non-responders. We analyzed NK cell number, subset, and activation by expression of CD107a and NKG2D and co-expression of CD38 and HLA-DR. NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against uninfected CD4+ T cells was tested in vitro. We found that NK cell absolute number, percentage of NK cells, and percentage of NK cell subsets were similar in the three study groups. The increased NK cell activation was found predominantly in CD56dimCD16+ subset of immunologic non-responders but not immunologic responders compared to healthy controls. The activation of NK cells was inversely correlated with the peripheral CD4+ T cell count in HIV+ subjects, even after controlling for chronic T cell activation, sex, and age, potential contributors for CD4+ T cell counts in HIV disease. Interestingly, NK cells from immunologic non-responders mediated cytotoxicity against uninfected CD4+ T cells ex vivo. NK cells may play a role in blunted CD4+ T cell recovery in ART-treated HIV disease.

PubMed | Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Tsinghua University, The 302 Hospital of PLA, PLA Fourth Military Medical University and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Infection and immunity | Year: 2016

Natural genetic transformation of Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important human pathogen, mediates horizontal gene transfer for the development of drug resistance, modulation of carriage and virulence traits, and evasion of host immunity. Transformation frequency differs greatly among pneumococcal clinical isolates, but the molecular basis and biological importance of this interstrain variability remain unclear. In this study, we characterized the transformation frequency and other associated phenotypes of 208 S. pneumoniae clinical isolates representing at least 30 serotypes. While the vast majority of these isolates (94.7%) were transformable, the transformation frequency differed by up to 5 orders of magnitude between the least and most transformable isolates. The strain-to-strain differences in transformation frequency were observed among many isolates producing the same capsule types, indicating no general association between transformation frequency and serotype. However, a statistically significant association was observed between the levels of transformation and colonization fitness/virulence in the hypertransformable isolates. Although nontransformable mutants of all the selected hypertransformable isolates were significantly attenuated in colonization fitness and virulence in mouse infection models, such mutants of the strains with relatively low transformability had no or marginal fitness phenotypes under the same experimental settings. This finding strongly suggests that the pneumococci with high transformation capability are addicted to a hypertransformable state for optimal fitness in the human host. This work has thus provided an intriguing hint for further investigation into how the competence system impacts the fitness, virulence, and other transformation-associated traits of this important human pathogen.

PubMed | The 302 Hospital of PLA and The 4th Peoples Hospital of Nanning Guangxi Clinical Treatment Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular medicine reports | Year: 2015

Arginase I (Arg I) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are important in regulating immune functions through their metabolites. Previous studies have revealed that the expression of Arg I is increased and the expression of iNOS is reduced in the serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)infected patients. As one of the most important immune organs and HIV replication sites, whether similar changes are present in the lymph nodes following HIV infection remains to be elucidated. To investigate this, the present study collected lymph node and blood specimens from 52 HIVinfected patients to measure the expression levels of Arg I and iNOS by immunohistochemistry and fluoresencebased flow cytometry. Compared with control subjects without HIV infection, the patients with HIV had significantly higher expression levels of Arg I in the lymph nodes and higher frequencies of Arg I+ CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in the blood and lymph nodes, and these results were contrary the those of iNOS in the corresponding compartments. The expression levels of Arg I in the lymph nodes and blood were negatively associated with peripheral CD4+ T cell count and positively associated with viral load. However, the expression levels of iNOS in the lymph nodes and blood were positively associated with peripheral CD4+ T cell count and negatively associated with viral load. These results showed that alterations in the expression levels of Arg I and iNOS in the peripheral T cells and peripheral nodes of HIV infected patients are associated with disease progression in these patients. These results indicate a potential to therapeutic strategy for delaying disease progression through regulating and manipulating the expression levels of Arg I and iNOS in patients infected with HIV.

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