Pathum Thani, Thailand
Pathum Thani, Thailand

Thammasat University , or in brief TU , is Thailand's second oldest institute of higher education. Officially established to be the national university of Thailand on 27 June 1934, the university was originally named by founder Pridi Banomyong, The University of Moral and Political science , reflecting the political fervor of Thailand. It started as an open university, with 7,094 students enrolled in its first academic year studying law and politics. The guiding philosophy of the university was "to teach students to love and cherish democracy". In 1952, the university's name was shortened to its present one by the military junta of Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram who also became the first rector of the university. Nevertheless, Thammasat University has always been involved in Thai national politics, counting most Thai political leaders among its graduates. Its original campus at Tha Phra Chan was the site of the 14 October 1973 uprising and the 6 October 1976 Massacre.In 1960, the university ended its free-entry policy and became the first university in Thailand that requires passing national entrance examinations for admission. Thammasat today offers more than 240 academic programs in 23 different faculties and colleges located on four campuses. Over the nearly 80 years since its founding, Thammasat University has evolved from an open university for law and politics to a prestigious international university offering all levels of academic degrees in many fields and disciplines. It has graduated more than 300,000 undergraduate and graduate students who have greatly contributed to the development and progress of Thai society and the nation. The university’s alumni have included most of all Prime Ministers, leading politicians and government figures, Bank of Thailand governors, Supreme Court presidents, judicial officers, and most of the city’s governors. The university's Bangkok Campus is in Phra Nakhon, Bangkok in close proximity to many tourist destinations. The Rangsit campus, where most undergraduate programmes are now held, is in Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani. Thammasat has smaller regional campuses in Lampang, Pattaya, Narathiwat, and Udon Thani. It is ranked No.447 in the world by QS. Wikipedia.


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News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.newscientist.com

AFTER years of protest, the world’s biggest civil engineering project yet is now cleared for takeoff. Late last month, the Supreme Court in Nicaragua turned down the last environmental claim delaying the construction of the $50 billion Interoceanic Grand Canal. It will carve a 273-kilometre channel through the small Central American country to connect the Atlantic with the Pacific Ocean – even though the Panama Canal, 1000 kilometres to the south, already does the job, and received a massive upgrade less than a year ago. Why the duplication? Proponents of the canal say it will ease congestion that the upgrade can’t address, and create new economic opportunities for Nicaragua. By shortening journeys, it could even help stem the rise in the shipping industry’s share of global carbon emissions, which could reach 17 per cent by mid-century. But the project also raises troubling questions about the environmental chaos that could ensue when alien species navigate between newly linked oceans. This matters even more given that Nicaragua’s mega-canal isn’t the only one in the works. On the other side of the world, backers of two others have been watching progress closely. One of them will make the Nicaragua project look downright petite. “Gargantuan ships carrying over 20,000 containers are quickly making canal upgrades look out of date” The natural world can’t keep pace with our escalating demand for far-flung goods. An increasing proportion of the world’s freight in everything from cotton and crude oil to computers and Christmas toys edges through just two artificial waterways: the Panama Canal and, across the world, the Suez Canal, which connects the Mediterranean with the Red Sea. But canals are choke points that are vulnerable to disruption by any number of causes, including administrative screw-ups, natural disasters and the age-old threat of piracy. It is getting harder to keep maritime traffic flowing smoothly, despite our best efforts. Last June, the Panama Canal saw a $5 billion overhaul completed; in 2015, the Suez Canal was augmented by a second shipping lane cut through Egypt’s Sinai desert, at a cost of $8 billion. And yet such infrastructure upgrades may not be enough. Gargantuan new ships that can carry over 20,000 containers have quickly made them look out of date. In January, the Panama Canal had to reduce the number of parking berths for super vessels, warning of “unusual delays”. Little wonder the Nicaragua canal was an easy sell for some. In 2013, President Daniel Ortega signed a deal with Chinese investor Wang Jing and his company, HKND Group, licensing them to build a canal across the country and giving them a 50-year concession on its operation. Wang’s canal, three times as long and twice as wide as the Panama Canal, would provide a new option for ships plying between China and the US east coast. Unsurprisingly protests ensued, delaying construction. The project has enraged Nicaraguan ecologists. Its most outspoken critic is Jorge Huete-Perez at the University of Central America in Managua, a former president of the country’s Academy of Sciences. Huete-Perez told New Scientist the canal would cut through biosphere reserves and destroy 4000 square kilometres of rainforests and wetlands. He also warned it would decimate coastal coral, mangroves and beaches where sea turtles lay their eggs – as well as inundating the villages of several indigenous forest tribes. “The canal project represents the worst nightmare for Nicaraguan conservationists,” he says. Fears are perhaps greatest for Lake Nicaragua. Spanning almost half the width of the country, it is the nation’s chief source of fresh water. More than 100 kilometres of it lies on the canal’s route, requiring a trench three times the lake’s existing depth to be built. That will “irreversibly alter the aquatic environment of Nicaragua,” says Axel Meyer of the University of Konstanz in Germany. Not every scientist is against the idea. Freshwater biologist Jeffrey McCrary, who is based in Nicaragua, says peasant farmers have already destroyed most of the country’s pristine rainforest. Rather than removing what remains, the canal could trigger economic activity that would give them alternative jobs. HKND’s chief project adviser Bill Wild, a construction industry veteran, agrees. “Personally, I believe that the canal is the only thing that will save the Nicaraguan environment.” The project has had a positive environmental assessment, produced for HKND by a UK consultancy. But last November, Nicaragua’s Academy of Sciences dismissed it as “propagandistic” and having “no scientific foundation”. Nonetheless, environmental objections have now been sidelined. Ortega, newly re-elected and keen to get going, has increased his attacks on opponents of the canal, snuffing out protests. Construction could start before the end of the year. While the Nicaraguan canal promises to vastly expand the Central American shipping corridor, a further two mega-canals are being negotiated. They would offer alternatives to two other major sea routes, namely the Bosporus – Russia’s sole southerly maritime access to the outside world – and the narrow Straits of Malacca, the gateway to China. Their advocates have watched the Nicaragua protests with interest, and their mood may well have been lifted by developments there. Bypassing the Straits of Malacca would mean cutting a 50-kilometre notch through a finger of land called the Kra isthmus, in the south of Thailand (see map). This would give China, the region’s superpower, the option for its ships to avoid the congested straits, shortening a route used at present by a third of all international cargo shipping. Container ships sailing between Shanghai and Mumbai, for example, would be able to shave more than two days off an 11-day journey. The environmental impact of the project has not been studied but could be considerable, says Ruth Banomyong of the Thammasat University in Bangkok. However, as in Nicaragua, political will is unlikely to bow to environmental concerns. With an estimated cost of $20 billion, the Thai canal will be the cheapest of the proposed mega-canals, as well as the simplest to build. Another plus is that it would fulfil a promise made in 2013 by Chinese premier Xi Jinping to create a “maritime silk road”. Both the Thai and Nicaraguan canals are dwarfed by a project being plotted to connect the Caspian Sea with the Persian Gulf. Its route would cleave right across Iran, stretching some 1400 kilometres. But length is hardly the biggest challenge. It would also need to traverse mountains up to 1600 metres high, requiring more than 50 giant locks, says Peyman Moazzen, a marine engineer based in Singapore, who has studied the scheme. But the geopolitical prize might be worth the effort. Such a link would give Russia a long-desired sea route to east Asia that avoids the circuitous journey via essentially Western-controlled seaways like the Bosporus and the Suez Canal. Any environmental concerns would probably be trumped by the fact that Iranians think one of the proposed routes could double as an irrigation canal, watering the desert sands of eastern Iran. The fates of both the Thai and the Iranian canals may well be determined by what happens in Nicaragua. A major protest will take place in Managua on 22 April, but legal avenues have been shut. The only remaining barriers are raising the money and any faltering in political will. There may be one last, slim hope for opponents of the canals: an altogether different way for ships to get between oceans. Engineers in South Korea say it might be easier, and more environmentally friendly, to span the relatively flat Kra isthmus with a railway sturdy enough to carry ships weighing up to 100,000 tonnes (not much smaller than the Panama Canal now takes). The Korea Railroad Research Institute, which has pioneered the idea of these so-called “dry canals”, suggested earlier last year that it could be built for a quarter of the cost of the Thai canal. A similar project has been proposed in Honduras, just north of Nicaragua. Is this the start of a new spate of monumental projects that archaeologists will be studying 10,000 years from now? It all depends on how fast we want our stuff. This article appeared in print under the headline “Carving up continents”


News Article | February 28, 2017
Site: en.prnasia.com

BANGKOK, Feb. 28, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Thammasat University (TU), Thailand's second-oldest university, has launched an initiative to install solar panels on its rooftops for intra-campus electricity generating with the goal of reaching overall production of 15 megawatts by the end of 2017, the biggest among all universities in Asia and the fourth-largest in the world. Professor Dr. Somkit Lertpaithoon, Thammasat University rector, said the move was part of TU's "Sustainable University" project. The solar rooftops are set to be installed at the university's Rangsit Campus in two phases. The first phase will generate a total of six megawatts of power and the second phase will bring the total to nine megawatts by the end of 2017. Currently, the top three universities in the world with the highest capacity of electricity generated from solar cells are Colby College at 30 megawatts, Arizona State University at 24 megawatts and the University of California at 16 megawatts. All three are located in the US. If the initiative is completed in 2017, the rector said that TU will become the number one university in Asia in terms of rooftop power generating, replacing Nanyang Technological Univeristy in Singapore, which generates five megawatts of electricity from its current rooftop project, the world's fourth-most, after the three US-based universities. TU deputy rector Parinya Thewanarumitkul said that fossil consumption is the major factor behind global warming and climate change. Thailand generates nearly 70% of its electricity from fossil fuel. The initiative will help support TU to generate around 30-40% of its own electricity.


Ummartyotin S.,Thammasat University | Manuspiya H.,Chulalongkorn University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015

The interest in cellulose and its modification as cellulose-based composite has been exponentially increasing. During the last three decades, cellulose and cellulose-based composite have been extensively designed for many aspects of the sensor. Due to the sustainability of cellulose and its excellent properties, the use of cellulose and the modification on cellulose-based composite can be versatile in the sensor community. In this review article, fundamental and background of cellulose and modification of cellulose-based composite are presented. Numerous approaches on cellulose and cellulose-based composite for many types of sensors including gas sensor, humidity sensor, UV sensor, strain sensor as well as capacitive sensor were discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a complex tissue that contains tumor cells and the surrounding stroma, which is populated by different types of mesenchymal cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Collectively, they are referred to as the tumor microenvironment (TME). Recent studies have shown that TME has a more profound influence on the growth and metastasis of HNSCC than was previously appreciated. Because carcinoma- associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are frequently observed in the stroma of the tumor, this review focuses on the potential role of tumor-CAFs interactions in progression of HNSCC. Tumor-CAFs crosstalk enhances the production of growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inflammatory mediators, which eventually facilitates tumor growth. In fact, factors and cells that do not support tumor growth are usually down regulated or mitigated in TME. Therefore TME may determine the fate of the tumors at the site of invasion and metastasis. For tumor cells that survive at these sites, stromal activation may serve to establish a supportive tumor stroma, fostering the outgrowth of the metastatic cells. The concept of tumor-stromal interactions and microenvironmental niche has profound consequences in tumor growth and metastasis and therefore, it's understanding will open up new strategies for the diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of HNSCC. © Ivyspring International Publisher.


Wonglimpiyarat J.,Thammasat University
Applied Energy | Year: 2010

This paper concerns the structural developments and the direction of technological change of the energy innovation system, based on the studies of Kuhn's model of scientific change and Schumpeter's model of technological change. The paper uses the case study of Thai government agencies for understanding the way governments can facilitate technological innovation. The analyses are based on a pre-foresight exercise to examine the potential of the bio-based energy and investigate a set of development policies necessary for the direction of energy system development. The results have shown that bio-based energy is seen as the next new wave for future businesses and one of the solutions to the problem of high oil prices to improve the world's economic security and sustainable development. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Siramolpiwat S.,Thammasat University
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Portal hypertension (PH) plays an important role in the natural history of cirrhosis, and is associated with several clinical consequences. The introduction of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) in the 1980s has been regarded as a major technical advance in the management of the PH-related complications. At present, polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stents are the preferred option over traditional bare metal stents. TIPS is currently indicated as a salvage therapy in patients with bleeding esophageal varices who fail standard treatment. Recently, applying TIPS early (within 72 h after admission) has been shown to be an effective and life-saving treatment in those with high-risk variceal bleeding. In addition, TIPS is recommended as the second-line treatment for secondary prophylaxis. For bleeding gastric varices, applying TIPS was able to achieve hemostasis in more than 90% of patients. More trials are needed to clarify the efficacy of TIPS compared with other treatment modalities, including cyanoacrylate injection and balloon retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varices. TIPS should also be considered in bleeding ectopic varices and refractory portal hypertensive gastropathy. In patients with refractory ascites, there is growing evidence that TIPS not only results in better control of ascites, but also improves long-term survival in appropriately selected candidates. In addition, TIPS is a promising treatment for refractory hepatic hydrothorax. However, the role of TIPS in the treatment of hepatorenal and hepatopulmonary syndrome is not well defined. The advantage of TIPS is offset by a risk of developing hepatic encephalopathy, the most relevant postprocedural complication. Emerging data are addressing the determination the optimal time and patient selection for TIPS placement aiming at improving long-term treatment outcome. This review is aimed at summarizing the published data regarding the application of TIPS in the management of complications related to PH. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.


Thiemjarus S.,Thammasat University
2010 International Conference on Body Sensor Networks, BSN 2010 | Year: 2010

This paper describes an orientation-independent method for detecting activities of daily living based on reference coordinate transformation. With the proposed method, a classification model can be trained using data acquired during a specific sensor orientation and applied to other input signals regardless of the orientation of the device. The technique is validated using activity recognition experiments with four different orientations of a single tri-axial accelerometer placed on the waist of 13 subjects performing a sub-class of activities of daily living. A high subject- independent accuracy of 90.42% has been achieved, reflecting a significant improvement of 11.74% and 16.58%, compared with classification without input transformation and classification with orientation-specific models, respectively. © 2010 IEEE.


Makhanov S.S.,Thammasat University
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2010

The paper presents a survey of five-axis computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining optimization methods employing adaptable geometric patterns. First, the survey introduces evolution of CNC interpolators from the simplest Taylor series-based routines to sophisticated procedures based on constraint minimization from dynamic systems control theory. Furthermore, a variety of methods based on spline interpolation, NURBS interpolation and Farouki's Pythagorean-hodograph curves is presented and analyzed. Next, the survey deals with techniques to optimize the positions and orientations of the tool in a particular neighborhood of the part surface. The most important application of these techniques is cutting by a flat-end or a fillet mill while avoiding local overcuts or undercuts due to the curvature interference and rear gouging. This section is supplemented by detection of global interference using visibility cone schemes and their recent modifications and improvements. Solutions offered by solid modeling are presented as well. Finally, adaptable geometric patterns employed for tool path generation are considered and analyzed. The adaptation is performed using certain criteria of the tool path quality, such as kinematics error, scallops, possible undercuts or overcuts, and the continuity of the path. Also covered are complex pocket milling employing geometric patterns capable of following the boundary, such as the offset methods, regional milling, the potential path methods, and clustering. The chapter also presents tool path optimization based on the adaptable curvilinear grids connecting the cutter location points. Finally, navigation approaches and the shortest-path schemes are considered, along with the adaptive spacefilling curve algorithms and their combinations with grid generation.© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2009.


Selvakkumaran S.,Thammasat University | Limmeechokchai B.,Thammasat University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

Energy and energy security have become important to countries aiming to go on the path of sustainable development. In this regard this paper analyses the improvement of energy security which occurs as a result of energy efficiency (EE) improvements in the power sector. In this paper energy security is measured along three main themes which are oil security, gas security and sustainability. The energy systems of the selected countries, namely Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam are modeled using an integer programming based optimization model called Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts - MESSAGE. Each country is modeled with two scenarios namely the reference scenario which maintains the status quo at the start year and the EE scenario which models EE options in the demand side as supply side alternatives. The time horizon is 2007-2030, where 2007 is the base year and 2030 is the end year. The results are presented for oil security, gas security, sustainability, and also for co-benefits such as mitigation of CO2 emissions, reduction in conventional primary energy use and reduction of local air pollutants such as SO2 and NOx. Results show that energy efficiency in Sri Lanka significantly increases the energy security whilst also accruing co-benefits of CO2 mitigation, mitigation of local air pollution and reducing the conventional primary energy use. In the case of Thailand and Vietnam, energy security is enhanced in the earlier years (2007-2015), but in the longer term of modeling horizon (2020-2030) energy security of both the reference and EE scenarios converge indicating that in terms of long term energy security implementing energy efficiency measures alone would not enhance energy security. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Pimanmas A.,Thammasat University
Composite Structures | Year: 2010

This paper discusses the strengthening of opening in R/C beams by FRP rods. A total number of thirteen beams with circular and square opening have been tested. The opening is shown to significantly reduce the shear capacity of beam. Two patterns of strengthening by FRP rod are investigated: one is to place FRP rods enclosing the opening and the other is to place FRP rods diagonally throughout the entire depth of the beam. It is found that simply placing FRP rods around the opening is not fully effective because a diagonal crack can propagate through the beam with the crack path diverted to avoid intersecting with the FRP rod. When FRP rods are placed throughout the entire beam's depth, a significant improvement in loading capacity and ductility is achieved, similar to strengthening by pre-fabricated internal steel bars. The flexural failure mode is restored. A nonlinear finite element analysis, based on smeared crack approach, is conducted for numerical verification and examining the effect of length, position and inclination of FRP rods. The plot of analytical principal compressive stress illustrates two strut mechanisms associated with FRP rod. The inclined rods are found to be more effective than vertical ones. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

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