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Thampanishvong K.,Thailand Development Research Institute
Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy | Year: 2012

In the countries that experience the problem of inter-class conflict, the self-interested elite tend to pursue allocation policies that maximize their own welfare. In the absence of the binding revolutionary constraint, under some conditions, the amount of public goods provided is too low, relative to the optimal level of public good from the perspective of general welfare. With the revolutionary constraint, there exists a set of parameter values whereby the elite provide strictly positive amount of public goods. With unconditional foreign aid, there is no guarantee that the elite will use these additional resources to finance public good provision. For conditional foreign aid, the conditionality requirements depend on the degree of transparency of the recipient country. Copyright © 2012 De Gruyter. All rights reserved. Source


Ammar S.,Thailand Development Research Institute
Asian Economic Policy Review | Year: 2011

The years following 1997 divide themselves into three roughly equal periods. The first was the painful period of deleveraging from the excesses of the bubble before the crisis, from which the economy emerged with more dependence on exports. The second period covered the government under Thaksin Shinawatra, who faced a mostly favorable external environment, and was therefore able to pursue many populist policies. Eventually, he was brought down by the military. The brief military government was followed by a number of short-lived governments, the last one of which was left to tackle the consequences of the global financial crisis, which led to a very deep downturn but a quick recovery. © 2011 The Author. Asian Economic Policy Review © 2011 Japan Center for Economic Research. Source


Sussangkarn C.,Thailand Development Research Institute
Asian Economic Policy Review | Year: 2011

This paper discusses the Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralization (CMIM) - its origin, development, and outlook. The experiences of the 1997-1998 East Asian financial crisis that led to the creation of the Chiang Mai Initiative (CMI), the evolution of the Chiang Mai Initiative to become the CMIM, and the setting up of the ASEAN+3 Macroeconomic Research Office (AMRO) to support CMIM are reviewed. Proposals are made on how to make the liquidity support role of the CMIM more effective. These involve changing the International Monetary Fund link from that based on using more than a certain percentage of a country's CMIM quota to that based on the number of times the 90-day CMIM swap needs to be rolled over, supplementing the size of the CMIM through linked bilateral swaps, allowing "contributing partners" beyond the current CMIM members, and developing the effectiveness of AMRO and its evolution into an East Asian monetary organization. © 2011 The Author. Asian Economic Policy Review © 2011 Japan Center for Economic Research. Source


Naranong A.,National Institute of Development Administration | Naranong V.,Thailand Development Research Institute
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2011

Objective To explore the positive and negative effects of medical tourism on the economy, health staff and medical costs in Thailand. Methods The financial repercussions of medical tourism were estimated from commerce ministry data, with modifications and extrapolations. Survey data on 4755 foreign and Thai outpatients in two private hospitals were used to explore how medical tourism affects human resources. Trends in the relative prices of caesarean section, ppendectomy, hernia repair, cholecystectomy and knee replacement in five private hospitals were examined. Focus groups and in-depth interviews with hospital managers and key informants from the public and private sectors were conducted to better understand stakeholders' motivations and practices in connection with these procedures and learn more about medical tourism. Findings Medical tourism generates the equivalent of 0.4% of Thailand's gross domestic product but has exacerbated the shortage of medical staff by luring more workers away from the private and public sectors towards hospitals catering to foreigners. This has raised costs in private hospitals substantially and is likely to raise them in public hospitals and in the universal health-care insurance covering most Thais as well. The "brain drain" may also undermine medical training in future. Conclusion Medical tourism in Thailand, despite some benefits, has negative effects that could be mitigated by lifting the restrictions on the importation of qualified foreign physicians and by taxing tourists who visit the country solely for the purpose of seeking medical treatment. The revenue thus generated could then be used to train physicians and retain medical school professors. Source


Anuchitworawong C.,Thailand Development Research Institute | Thampanishvong K.,Thailand Development Research Institute
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction | Year: 2015

Thailand has experienced unprecedented increase in foreign direct investment (FDI) over the past few decades, while there has been an increasing trend of natural disaster occurrence. Yet, the effect of natural disaster on FDI is unclear. The inconclusive findings can be reconciled by exploring the effect of natural disaster on FDI by applying the simultaneous equation approach to account for endogeneity between variables. Our results show that natural disaster does matter for FDI flows. Higher severity of natural disaster, captured by our constructed composite index, tends to lower FDI flows into Thailand, other things being equal. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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