Thailand Development Research Institute

Bangkok, Thailand

Thailand Development Research Institute

Bangkok, Thailand

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Lee R.,University of California at Berkeley | Mason A.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Mason A.,East-West Center | Amporfu E.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | And 49 more authors.
Science | Year: 2014

Longer lives and fertility far below the replacement level of 2.1 births per woman are leading to rapid population aging in many countries. Many observers are concerned that aging will adversely affect public finances and standards of living. Analysis of newly available National Transfer Accounts data for 40 countries shows that fertility well above replacement would typically be most beneficial for government budgets. However, fertility near replacement would be most beneficial for standards of living when the analysis includes the effects of age structure on families as well as governments. And fertility below replacement would maximize per capita consumption when the cost of providing capital for a growing labor force is taken into account. Although low fertility will indeed challenge government programs and very low fertility undermines living standards, we find that moderately low fertility and population decline favor the broader material standard of living. Copyright 2014 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science; all rights reserved.


Panpiemras J.,Thailand Development Research Institute | Puttitanun T.,San Diego State University | Samphantharak K.,University of California at San Diego | Thampanishvong K.,Thailand Development Research Institute | Thampanishvong K.,University of St. Andrews
Health Policy | Year: 2011

Fully implemented in Thailand in 2002, the Universal Health Care Coverage (UC) Program aimed to provide cheap access to health care services, for 30 baht (less than 1 U.S. dollar) per visit, to all uninsured Thais. In this paper, we studied the impact of the UC in Thailand on the demand for health care services using hospital level data. We found that the UC program was successful in increasing outpatient demand for health care, particularly the demand from the elderly and the poor. However, outpatient demand for health care dramatically increased during the first year of the program and faded away quickly in subsequent years. In contrast to outpatient demand, the number of inpatient visits and the number of days for which the inpatients were admitted at hospitals declined after the UC program was launched. In this paper, we offer our explanation of these phenomena, highlight problems associated with the UC program, and provide policy recommendations to improve the program. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Naranong A.,National Institute of Development Administration | Naranong V.,Thailand Development Research Institute
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2011

Objective To explore the positive and negative effects of medical tourism on the economy, health staff and medical costs in Thailand. Methods The financial repercussions of medical tourism were estimated from commerce ministry data, with modifications and extrapolations. Survey data on 4755 foreign and Thai outpatients in two private hospitals were used to explore how medical tourism affects human resources. Trends in the relative prices of caesarean section, ppendectomy, hernia repair, cholecystectomy and knee replacement in five private hospitals were examined. Focus groups and in-depth interviews with hospital managers and key informants from the public and private sectors were conducted to better understand stakeholders' motivations and practices in connection with these procedures and learn more about medical tourism. Findings Medical tourism generates the equivalent of 0.4% of Thailand's gross domestic product but has exacerbated the shortage of medical staff by luring more workers away from the private and public sectors towards hospitals catering to foreigners. This has raised costs in private hospitals substantially and is likely to raise them in public hospitals and in the universal health-care insurance covering most Thais as well. The "brain drain" may also undermine medical training in future. Conclusion Medical tourism in Thailand, despite some benefits, has negative effects that could be mitigated by lifting the restrictions on the importation of qualified foreign physicians and by taxing tourists who visit the country solely for the purpose of seeking medical treatment. The revenue thus generated could then be used to train physicians and retain medical school professors.


Thampanishvong K.,Thailand Development Research Institute
Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy | Year: 2012

In the countries that experience the problem of inter-class conflict, the self-interested elite tend to pursue allocation policies that maximize their own welfare. In the absence of the binding revolutionary constraint, under some conditions, the amount of public goods provided is too low, relative to the optimal level of public good from the perspective of general welfare. With the revolutionary constraint, there exists a set of parameter values whereby the elite provide strictly positive amount of public goods. With unconditional foreign aid, there is no guarantee that the elite will use these additional resources to finance public good provision. For conditional foreign aid, the conditionality requirements depend on the degree of transparency of the recipient country. Copyright © 2012 De Gruyter. All rights reserved.


Anuchitworawong C.,Thailand Development Research Institute | Thampanishvong K.,Thailand Development Research Institute
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction | Year: 2015

Thailand has experienced unprecedented increase in foreign direct investment (FDI) over the past few decades, while there has been an increasing trend of natural disaster occurrence. Yet, the effect of natural disaster on FDI is unclear. The inconclusive findings can be reconciled by exploring the effect of natural disaster on FDI by applying the simultaneous equation approach to account for endogeneity between variables. Our results show that natural disaster does matter for FDI flows. Higher severity of natural disaster, captured by our constructed composite index, tends to lower FDI flows into Thailand, other things being equal. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Chandoevwit W.,Khon Kaen University | Chandoevwit W.,Thailand Development Research Institute | Phatchana P.,Thailand Development Research Institute | Sirigomon K.,Kings Security | And 3 more authors.
Population Health Metrics | Year: 2016

Background: Thailand uses cause of death records in civil registration to summarize maternal mortality statistics. A report by the Department of Health using the Reproductive Age Mortality Studies (RAMOS) reported that the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in 1997 was approximately three to four times higher than MMR based on the civil registration cause of death records. Here, we used multiple data sources to systematically measure maternal mortality in Thailand and showed a disparity between age groups and regions. Methods: We calculated the number of maternal deaths using a two-stage method. In the first stage, we counted the number of deceased mothers who successfully gave live births. In the second stage, we counted the number of women who died during the pregnancy, delivery, or the postpartum period without a live birth. Results: The number of maternal deaths dropped from 268 in 2007 to 226 in 2014. Nearly 50 % of the deaths occurred in Stage 1. The maternal mortality ratio in 2007 was 33.6 per 100,000 live births; the rate fell to 31.8 in 2014. The age ranges of women observed were 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, and 45-49, and the MMR averages were 21.5, 23.8, 27.0, 42.1, 67.7, 115.4, and 423.4 per 100,000 live births, respectively. The Southern region consistently exhibited the highest MMR compared to other regions for every year analyzed, except 2012. Women in Bangkok had a lower risk of dying during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period than women from other regions. Conclusions: We demonstrated that using multiple administrative data sources in the two-stage method was an efficient method that provided systematic measurement and timely reporting on the maternal mortality ratio. An additional benefit of the method was that information provided from the combined data sources, (e.g., the number of maternal deaths by age group and region) was relevant to the safe motherhood policy. © 2016 Chandoevwit et al.


Sussangkarn C.,Thailand Development Research Institute
Asian Economic Policy Review | Year: 2011

This paper discusses the Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralization (CMIM) - its origin, development, and outlook. The experiences of the 1997-1998 East Asian financial crisis that led to the creation of the Chiang Mai Initiative (CMI), the evolution of the Chiang Mai Initiative to become the CMIM, and the setting up of the ASEAN+3 Macroeconomic Research Office (AMRO) to support CMIM are reviewed. Proposals are made on how to make the liquidity support role of the CMIM more effective. These involve changing the International Monetary Fund link from that based on using more than a certain percentage of a country's CMIM quota to that based on the number of times the 90-day CMIM swap needs to be rolled over, supplementing the size of the CMIM through linked bilateral swaps, allowing "contributing partners" beyond the current CMIM members, and developing the effectiveness of AMRO and its evolution into an East Asian monetary organization. © 2011 The Author. Asian Economic Policy Review © 2011 Japan Center for Economic Research.


Ammar S.,Thailand Development Research Institute
Asian Economic Policy Review | Year: 2011

The years following 1997 divide themselves into three roughly equal periods. The first was the painful period of deleveraging from the excesses of the bubble before the crisis, from which the economy emerged with more dependence on exports. The second period covered the government under Thaksin Shinawatra, who faced a mostly favorable external environment, and was therefore able to pursue many populist policies. Eventually, he was brought down by the military. The brief military government was followed by a number of short-lived governments, the last one of which was left to tackle the consequences of the global financial crisis, which led to a very deep downturn but a quick recovery. © 2011 The Author. Asian Economic Policy Review © 2011 Japan Center for Economic Research.


PubMed | Thailand Development Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Health policy (Amsterdam, Netherlands) | Year: 2011

Fully implemented in Thailand in 2002, the Universal Health Care Coverage (UC) Program aimed to provide cheap access to health care services, for 30 baht (less than 1 U.S. dollar) per visit, to all uninsured Thais. In this paper, we studied the impact of the UC in Thailand on the demand for health care services using hospital level data. We found that the UC program was successful in increasing outpatient demand for health care, particularly the demand from the elderly and the poor. However, outpatient demand for health care dramatically increased during the first year of the program and faded away quickly in subsequent years. In contrast to outpatient demand, the number of inpatient visits and the number of days for which the inpatients were admitted at hospitals declined after the UC program was launched. In this paper, we offer our explanation of these phenomena, highlight problems associated with the UC program, and provide policy recommendations to improve the program.


PubMed | Kings Security, Khon Kaen University and Thailand Development Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Population health metrics | Year: 2016

Thailand uses cause of death records in civil registration to summarize maternal mortality statistics. A report by the Department of Health using the Reproductive Age Mortality Studies (RAMOS) reported that the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in 1997 was approximately three to four times higher than MMR based on the civil registration cause of death records. Here, we used multiple data sources to systematically measure maternal mortality in Thailand and showed a disparity between age groups and regions.We calculated the number of maternal deaths using a two-stage method. In the first stage, we counted the number of deceased mothers who successfully gave live births. In the second stage, we counted the number of women who died during the pregnancy, delivery, or the postpartum period without a live birth.The number of maternal deaths dropped from 268 in 2007 to 226 in 2014. Nearly 50% of the deaths occurred in Stage 1. The maternal mortality ratio in 2007 was 33.6 per 100,000 live births; the rate fell to 31.8 in 2014. The age ranges of women observed were 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, and 45-49, and the MMR averages were 21.5, 23.8, 27.0, 42.1, 67.7, 115.4, and 423.4 per 100,000 live births, respectively. The Southern region consistently exhibited the highest MMR compared to other regions for every year analyzed, except 2012. Women in Bangkok had a lower risk of dying during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period than women from other regions.We demonstrated that using multiple administrative data sources in the two-stage method was an efficient method that provided systematic measurement and timely reporting on the maternal mortality ratio. An additional benefit of the method was that information provided from the combined data sources, (e.g., the number of maternal deaths by age group and region) was relevant to the safe motherhood policy.

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