Kani M.,Tezukayama University |
Motohashi K.,Tokyo University of Technology |
Motohashi K.,Chiyoda Corporation
Research Policy | Year: 2012
This paper provides an empirical analysis of the technology market for patents in Japan, by using a novel firm-level dataset that combines a Japanese Patent Office survey titled Survey of Intellectual Property Activities, the Institute of Intellectual Property patent database, and the Licensing Activity Survey conducted by the University of Tokyo. In this paper, we use a two-step model to estimate a firm's licensing propensities; the first step estimates the determinants of potential licensors (willingness to license) and the second step identifies the factors of the actual licensing out of technology (licensing propensity). We found that a significant number of patents held by firms are not licensed out, although the owners are willing to do so. Our econometric analysis reveals that a major factor behind this technology market imperfection is the potential licensors' difficulty in finding licensing partners. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tanaka Y.,Tezukayama University |
Sekiya H.,Hiroshima University
Human Movement Science | Year: 2011
The primary purpose of the present study was to examine kinematic characteristics and force control during a golf-putting task under a pressure condition. The secondary purpose was to provide an exploratory investigation of the relationship between changes in behavior (kinematics and force control) and performance on the one hand, and psychological (attention and affect) and physiological (arousal level) changes on the other hand. Twenty male novices performed 150 acquisition trials, followed by 10 test trials during a pressure condition induced by performance-contingent distracters: a cash reward or punishment. A three-dimensional motion analysis revealed that, during the pressure test, angular displacements of rotational movements at the horizontal plane and movement time of the arms and club during the backswing and downswing phases all decreased, while acceleration of the elbows during the downswing phase increased. Mean performance indices in all participants' were unchanged in spite of the kinematic changes under the pressure condition. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the decrement in performance, as well as increased variability of movement time and speed, were more likely to increase when participants shifted their attention to movements. Furthermore, changes in heart rate and negative affect were related to both the increase in movement acceleration and a decrease in grip force. These findings suggest that performance and behavioral changes during golf-putting under pressure can be associated with attentional changes, along with the influences of physiological-emotional responses. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Tanaka Y.,Tezukayama University |
Sekiya H.,Hiroshima University
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport | Year: 2010
We investigated changes in movement kinematics and attentional focus when, expert and novice golfers performed a golfputting task under pressure. Six male professional golfers and five male novice golfers performed, 100 acquisition trials, followed by 10 trials in the pressure condition with a perforniance-contingent cash reward and small audience. After the 10 trials in the pressure condition, participants answered a questionnaire concerning attentional focus during both types of trial., including such aspects as conscious control of movements and the effects of distraction. A pressure manipulation clieck revealed a modest increase in physiological arousal, in that heart rate increased by about 10 bpni although state anxiety did not, increase. A two-dimensional analysis of movement kinematics revealed that the amplitudes of arm and club movements decreased on the backswing in the pressure condition. Arm and club movement speed decreased on the foreswing in both experts and novices. Furthermore, neither experts nor novices changed their attentional focus in tlie pressure condition. Wfiereas pretdous studies of "choking under pressure"focused on attentional changes, the kinematic changes found in the present study were possibly caused by the influences of strategy modification and/or emotional response. Choking phenomena can be explained by attentional changes, along with the influences of strategy modification and/or emotional response underpressure. © 2010 by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.
Yasui S.,Tezukayama University |
Mishima M.,Kyushu University
Phosphorus, Sulfur and Silicon and the Related Elements | Year: 2011
Upon laser flash photolysis on a solution of triarylphosphine Ar 3P in acetonitrile or dichloromethane using a YAG laser at 266 nm, transient absorption was observed by time-resolved infrared spectroscopy. Rate constants were determined for the formation step of the absorption. Dependency of the rate on [Ar 3P] and atmosphere, along with independent observation in laser flash photolysis/UV-Vis spectroscopy of the Ar 3P solutions, suggeststhat electron transfer occurs from Ar 3P to the singlet photoexcited state of Ar 3P, generating triarylphosphine radical cation Ar 3P .+, which reacts with a trace amount of H2O in the solvent to give the final product Ar 3P O, which has been observed in steady-state photolysis. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Nakamura A.,Tezukayama University
Telecommunications Policy | Year: 2010
This paper employs a web-based conjoint-type questionnaire to examine empirically user preference for a hypothetical Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) unlock situation in Japan's mobile phone market. This paper also analyzes carriers' other marketing strategies to lock in consumers. The empirical analysis in this study reveals the following: over 80% of survey respondents evaluate a highly compatible platform with the SIM unlocked. Approximately 70% of consumers find that the value of discounts on initial payments exceeds the discounts on one-year monthly payments. In addition, conditions set by continuing agreements for mobile carriers and mobile handsets reduce consumer benefit by 35% at the median in the case of SIM unlocking with compatible platforms. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mun S.-I.,Kyoto University |
Teraji Y.,Tezukayama University
Journal of Transport Economics and Policy | Year: 2012
This study deals with the allocation of international and domestic flights (allocation of services) among multiple airports in a metropolitan area. We examine three types of airport operation: 1. separate operation by two private firms (PP); 2. integrated operation by a single private firm (M)\ and 3. integrated operation by the government (G). By means of numerical simulations, we obtain the following results: (a) the allocation of services varies with the location of airports and types of operation; (b) the welfare gain of the service choice regulation is quantitatively small compared with the airport charge regulation.
Inakuma T.,Tezukayama University
Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi | Year: 2015
Carotenoids are known to be superior quenchers of singlet oxygen. Thus, carotenoids, which are present in various vegetables, are widely thought to exert many health benefits and anti-aging effects. This study investigated the health effects of carotenoidandcarotenoid -rich vegetable intake at each stage of life. Among carotenoids, the use of lycopene can be cost-prohibitive. Thus, attempts were made to extract lycopene from tomato skin using SC-CO2 (supercritical-carbon dioxide). Further, the carotenoid content, a potential antioxidant source, of 70 vegetables in Japan was determined by reversed-phase HPLC. These results were applied to the development of carrot juice and space food. Additionally, a new assay method to quantify the singlet oxygen absorption capacity (SOAC) of antioxidants, including carotenoids, and vegetable extracts was proposed. Copyright © 2015, Japanese Society for Food Science and Technology.
Nakamura A.,Tezukayama University
Information Economics and Policy | Year: 2011
In this study, based on a conjoint-type survey analysis, the switching cost of several Japanese telecom services are empirically examined simultaneously, contingent on each carrier's bundling strategies. The results suggest the following conclusions. The hierarchy of switching costs is mobile phone service, fixed phone service, ISP (Internet Service Provider), and broadband access service, in descending order. Even if the government prohibits the formerly state-owned monopoly NTT from forming alliances with other carriers, the legacy NTT group would still command more than half of the market share under FMC if each carrier adopts a pure bundling strategy. If mixed bundling emerges as the primary strategy in the FMC market, the resulting type of competition from the introduction of FMC does not stimulate competitive pricing. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Yamamoto T.,Tezukayama University
The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques | Year: 2012
Serotonin, a neurotransmitter synthesized from tryptophan, has been proposed to play a key role in central fatigue. In this study, we examined whether tryptophan itself and/or its two metabolites, kyneurenic acid (KYNA) and quinolinic acid (QUIN), are involved in central fatigue. Experiments were conducted using Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR) and Nagase analbuminemic rats (NAR). Central fatigue was assessed by treadmill running and a Morris water maze test. Microdialysis was used to collect samples for measurement of extracellular concentration of tryptophan, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and to infuse test agents. To examine the kinetics of release, synaptosomes in the striatum were prepared in vitro to measure intra- and extrasynaptosomal concentration of tryptophan, serotonin and 5-HIAA. The concentration of tryptophan secreted into the extracellular space of the striatum was higher during fatigue only, and quickly returned to basal levels with recovery from fatigue. Running time to exhaustion was reduced by activation of tryptophan receptors. Time to exhaustion was shorter in NAR, which maintain a higher extracellular level of striatum tryptophan than SDR. Impaired memory performance in a water maze task after tryptophan treatment was attributable to high levels of KYNA and QUIN in the hippocampus acting synergistically on N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors. When branched-chain amino acids were administered, tryptophan transport to the extracellular space of the striatum was drastically inhibited. Our findings demonstrate that the increase in fatigue which occurs because of excessively elevated brain tryptophan can be further amplified by the use of synthetic KYNA and QUIN.
Nakajima K.,Tezukayama University
International Journal of Electronic Commerce Studies | Year: 2013
In Japan we face the serious problem of students' declined learning performance and lack of intellectual motivation. Many universities have heavily invested in Information Technology (IT) such as e-Learning, e-Portfolio, mobile learning, social media, and cloud computing to motivate students and engage in more proactive learning. However, casual observation suggests that the use of IT remains limited and that its effect seems mixed as a solution to the problems. One of the reasons for its lack of clear effect is that we often ignore the issues associated with faculty development. That is, instructors need to be motivated and learn how to use IT effectively in their teaching before expecting students to perform better. The purpose of this paper is to provide practical solutions to the challenges in motivating both students and instructors by illustrating some instructor-centric technologies and to discussing their impacts on faculty development.