Texas Tech University, often referred to as Texas Tech, Tech, or TTU, is a public research university in Lubbock, Texas, United States. Established on February 10, 1923, and originally known as Texas Technological College, it is the leading institution of the four-institution Texas Tech University System. The university's student enrollment is the sixth-largest in the state of Texas, as of the Fall 2014 semester. The university shares its campus with Texas Tech University Health science Center, making it the only campus in Texas to house an undergraduate university, law school, and medical school at the same location.The university offers degrees in more than 150 courses of study through 13 colleges and hosts 60 research centers and institutes. Texas Tech University has awarded over 200,000 degrees since 1927, including over 40,000 graduate and professional degrees. The Carnegie Foundation classifies Texas Tech as having "high research activity". Research projects in the areas of epidemiology, pulsed power, grid computing, nanophotonics, atmospheric science, and wind energy are among the most prominent at the university. The Spanish Renaissance-themed campus, described by author James Michener as "the most beautiful west of the Mississippi until you get to Stanford", has been awarded the Grand Award for excellence in grounds-keeping, and has been noted for possessing a public art collection among the ten best in the United States.The Texas Tech Red Raiders are charter members of the Big 12 Conference and compete in Division I for all varsity sports. The Red Raiders football team has made 36 bowl appearances, which is 17th most of any university. The Red Raiders basketball team has made 14 appearances in the NCAA Division I Tournament. Bob Knight, the second-winningest coach in men's NCAA Division I basketball history, served as the team's head coach from 2001 to 2008. The Lady Raiders basketball team won the 1993 NCAA Division I Tournament. In 1999, Texas Tech's Goin' Band from Raiderland received the Sudler Trophy, which is awarded to "recognize collegiate marching bands of particular excellence".Though the majority of the university's students originate in the southwestern United States, the school has served students from all 50 states and more than 100 foreign countries. Texas Tech University alumni and former students have gone on to prominent careers in government, business, science, medicine, education, sports, and entertainment. Wikipedia.
Texas Tech University | Date: 2016-12-06
The present invention includes compositions and methods for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer with a recombinant tumor-associated antigen loaded antigen presenting cell that generates a cytotoxic T lymphocyte specific immune response to at least one of SP17, AKAP-4, or PTTG1 expressed by one or more lung cancer cells.
Texas Tech University and U.S. Department of Agriculture | Date: 2016-09-09
The present invention includes a method of introducing a pathogenic infection into one or more peripheral lymph nodes of an animal for testing of meat, comprising: inoculating at one or more peripheral lymph node drainage areas the animal with a known amount of a known pathogen; harvesting one or more peripheral lymph nodes from the animal; grinding meat or meat trimmings and the one or more peripheral lymph nodes into ground meat; and determining a ratio of a number of peripheral lymph nodes infected to the weight of the meat or meat trimmings used to create the ground meat, wherein the infected ground meat can be used to test interventions against the known pathogen in a grinding process.
Texas Tech University | Date: 2016-09-13
A modeling framework performs an economic analysis of a battery storage system to determine the economic feasibility with different business opportunities. The installed battery system can be utilized to optimize the energy flow between the wind farm and the utility. Several factors can be considered when performing the analysis, the most important being, how to determine the best optimal time to charge and discharge the battery to maximize economic benefit.
Texas Tech University | Date: 2015-05-11
An apparatus and computerized method optimizes or generates a sigma profile for a molecule by receiving a sigma profile for the molecule, calculating an activity coefficient for the molecule using the sigma profile for the molecule, calculating a solubility for the molecule using the activity coefficient for the molecule, optimizing or adjusting the sigma profile for the molecule by adjusting the sigma profile using an objective function and one or more constraints, providing the sigma profile to an output device communicably coupled to a processor.
Hui Q.,Texas Tech University
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2011
This technical note focuses on finite-time rendezvous problems which refer to agreement on states in finite time within certain available information range. Using semistability theory for discontinuous dynamical systems, we develop a framework for designing finite-time semistable rendezvous protocols for multiagent dynamical systems. Specifically, we present distributed nonsmooth static state and dynamic output feedback controller architectures for finite-time rendezvous with a novel two-step proof of stability and finite-time convergence. © 2010 IEEE.
Nes W.D.,Texas Tech University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011
Cholesterol and its relatives possessing the 1,2- cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene ring system form the sterolome, which comprises a chemical library of more than 1000 natural products found in all forms of eukaryotes and some prokaryotes that serve a myriad of biological functions. Central to the advances of the past two decades is the development of molecular genetic approaches that have witnessed the cloning, primary amino acid sequences, and functional characterization of a large number of enzymes that act on sterol and revealed unexpected inborn errors of cholesterol metabolism. The relevant committed step that distinguishes sterol from isoprenoid-triterpenoid biosynthesis occurs at the cyclization of oxidosqualene. There is still much to learn about sterol biosynthesis and the enzymes involved in the pathway.
Chakraborty A.R.,Texas Tech University
Blood | Year: 2013
To identify molecular determinants of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDI) resistance, we selected HuT78 cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) cells with romidepsin in the presence of P-glycoprotein inhibitors to prevent transporter upregulation. Resistant sublines were 250- to 385-fold resistant to romidepsin and were resistant to apoptosis induced by apicidin, entinostat, panobinostat, belinostat, and vorinostat. A custom TaqMan array identified increased insulin receptor (INSR) gene expression; immunoblot analysis confirmed increased protein expression and a four- to eightfold increase in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK) phosphorylation in resistant cells compared with parental cells. Resistant cells were exquisitely sensitive to MEK inhibitors, and apoptosis correlated with restoration of proapoptotic Bim. Romidepsin combined with MEK inhibitors yielded greater apoptosis in cells expressing mutant KRAS compared with romidepsin treatment alone. Gene expression analysis of samples obtained from patients with CTCL enrolled on the NCI1312 phase 2 study of romidepsin in T-cell lymphoma suggested perturbation of the MAPK pathway by romidepsin. Immunohistochemical analysis of Bim expression demonstrated decreased expression in some skin biopsies at disease progression. These findings implicate increased activation of MEK and decreased Bim expression as a resistance mechanism to HDIs, supporting combination of romidepsin with MEK inhibitors in clinical trials.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: POLYMERS | Award Amount: 525.29K | Year: 2016
The technological infrastructure that provides science and engineering solutions to the rapidly growing nanotechnology area is of considerable national interest. The present work addresses fundamentals of the nanoconfinement behavior of materials that form the basis of the relevant enabling technologies. One important set of problems addressed relates to the engineering properties (such as stiffness and yield strength) of nanometer-thick films that are in freely standing form and, consequently, cannot be readily measured. The only method available for making such measurements in such materials is a bubble-inflation method developed in the PIs laboratory that allows testing of extremely small quantities of material, especially nanometer-thin polymer films. The work investigates the engineering properties of freely standing polymer films deep in the glassy state with particular emphasis on yield behavior. These studies will be the first to provide film thickness and temperature dependence of yield in freely standing films. Also, in the freely standing films, a large enhancement in the material stiffness is observed and, recently, conflicting theoretical models of the stiffening behavior have appeared to explain the phenomenon. Such predictions are, of course important to nanomaterial design and use, and the present work will establish the range of validity of these theories. Molecular architecture effects will also be investigated. Finally, the nanobubble inflation experiment permits investigations of novel materials that were previously unachievable due to their extremely small quantities. In this case, the investigators will study ultrastable polymer glasses made by physical vapor deposition (PVD) and that can be made more stable than even a 20 million year old amber glass. This high stability allows the interrogation of a long-standing question whose resolution is fundamental to theories of glasses and, in particular, how to make long-term predictions of their behavior in applications to important areas such as advanced composites and adhesives.
The behavior of ultrathin polymer films remains an intense area of investigation, but most studies have been limited to the case of substrate-supported films even though studies suggest much larger effects occur in the freely standing state. The present work tests three aspects of freely standing ultrathin films using the TTU bubble inflation method and takes advantage of the methods capability of making viscoelastic measurements on extremely small quantities of material to study the response of an ultrastable polymer glass made by physical vapor deposition (PVD). One important set of problems addressed relates to the engineering properties, such as modulus and yield strength of nanometer thick films that are in freely standing form and, consequently, not readily measured. The only method available for making such measurements in such materials is a bubble inflation method that allows testing of extremely small quantities of material, especially ultrathin or nano-metric polymer films. The work investigates the engineering properties of freely standing polymer films deep in the glassy state with particular emphasis on yield behavior. Also, in freely standing films, a large modulus enhancement is observed and, recently, conflicting theoretical models of the stiffening behavior have appeared to explain the phenomenon. Such predictions are, of course important to nanomaterial design and use and the present work will establish the range of validity of these theories. Branched polymers have been shown to exhibit different nanoscale behavior from linear counterparts upon confinement on a supporting layer and the TTU bubble inflation method will be used to examine the effects of branching and unentangled polymer chain length on the viscoelastic properties of freely standing ultrathin films. Finally, it remains controversial whether or not the dynamics (relaxation time or viscosity) in glass-forming liquids, including polymers, diverge at a finite temperature. The PIs group has now demonstrated the first PVD ultrastable polymer glass that can be used to determine the upper bound relaxation times in a fashion similar to prior work with a 20 million year old amber but over a larger window of temperatures because the PVD polymer has a fictive temperature at least 50 K below the glass transition temperature, and optimization of the PVD conditions offers the possibility of an even larger testing window. Should the experiment be successful, it will provide further experimental data that can challenge theories of the behavior of glass-forming systems.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: TECTONICS | Award Amount: 350.00K | Year: 2016
Tectonic collision zones represent locations in which continental crust is formed and/or physically and chemically modified. It is therefore important to determine how large masses of rock (terranes) are added to or removed from the crust during collision events. It is also important to understand the thermal history of these environments in terms of timing, temperature extremes, sources of heat, and geologic consequences, including potential for economic mineral deposits. Traditional theories for terrane addition involves emplacement of cold oceanic terranes beneath existing continental rocks. However, recent theories suggest a process (relamination) in which hot, partially melted rocks are emplaced at the base of the crust. This research will test these theories in the Klamath Mountain geologic province (CA and OR), where the potential for ancient relamination is strong. The research will also develop best practices for future studies of relamination elsewhere and will develop a detailed thermal history of the Klamath province that can be used to better understand economic resources, regional geologic history, and landscape development. Lastly, because the economy of the area is becoming increasingly dependent on tourism, additional products designed to promote eco-tourism include field guides and web-based information resources for the general public.
Because relamination involves emplacement of hot metasedimentary rocks at the base of the crust, a number of distinctive geologic features should result, in particular: rapid heating and metamorphism of the overlying terranes and lower-crustal modification of arc magmas due to contamination by relaminated metasedimentary rocks in the lower crust. The research will tightly constrain the timing of deformation and high-grade metamorphism relative to magmatism through detailed field mapping and sampling. High-precision (CA-ID-TIMS) U-Pb ages on zircon and rutile from high-grade migmatites and key pinning plutons will provide age constraints of orogenic events. These ages will be combined with field and microstructural data and P-T estimates (mineral equilibria and pseudosections) to develop a complete Pressure-Temperature-time-Deformation (P-T-t-D) history. Regional sampling of plutons that span accretionary events in both time and space will yield zircons that will be analyzed for oxygen isotopes (SIMS) and dated and analyzed for Hf isotopes by LA-ICPMS to characterize temporal and spatial changes in magma sources and contaminants, and thereby the changes in the lower crustal architecture caused by relamination.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Dimensions of Biodiversity | Award Amount: 563.15K | Year: 2016
Although most flowering plants (angiosperms) have flowers that combine male and female organs, an estimated seven percent of flowering plant species are dioecious, meaning male and female flowers are on separate plants. All poplars and willows are dioecious and these two genera are the most abundant trees and shrubs in many parts of the United States and China. This research aims to understand the genetic basis for the evolution of unisexual flowers in poplars and willows, how defense and volatile chemical compounds differ between male and female individuals, and how different chemical profiles within these plants affects insect biodiversity. Moreover, poplars and willows are also important components of the timber and biofuels industries, so results from this research may lead to new insights into how growth and yield may be improved in the two genera. The collaboration between United States and Chinese researchers will provide extensive cross-disciplinary and cross-cultural training opportunities for over fifteen graduate students and five postdoctoral scholars, and the data generated from the research will be incorporated into teaching materials for courses to be taught in both Chinese and US institutions. Dozens of undergraduates from diverse backgrounds will be trained in plant genomics and functional ecology through direct contributions to data collection and analysis, or through access to the data for research immersion experiences. Finally, researchers will lead K-12 teacher training workshops targeted at under-represented groups in rural Texas to encourage teaching of the foundational theories of biodiversity.
This research will address functional biodiversity with a comprehensive survey of gender dimorphism for defense and volatile chemistry in Populus and Salix, and determine how gender dimorphism influences pollinator attraction, herbivore feeding preferences, and overall arthropod community structure. Genetic aspects of biodiversity will be investigated by population genomic characterization of the allosomes in comparison to autosomes. Researchers will map the chromosomal locations of sex determination regions (SDRs) in a suite of sixteen Salix and Populus species, determine whether these genomic regions contain defense and volatile chemistry loci consistent with their theoretical influence on movement of the SDR, and investigate predicted population genomic patterns of allosome divergence caused by interactions between sexually antagonistic loci with the SDR. The phylogenetic component of this research will place gender dimorphism and allosome evolution in a historical context by developing and integrating robust phylogenies of Populus, Salix, and closely related genera within the Salicaceae in order to understand how many times the SDR has moved during evolution of the family, how the SDR has changed in size and composition, and whether movement of the SDR correlates with barriers to interspecific hybridization.