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De Bono J.S.,Institute of Cancer Research | Logothetis C.J.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Molina A.,Ortho Biotech Oncology Research and Development a Unit of Cougar Biotechnology | Fizazi K.,Institute Gustave Roussy | And 28 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Biosynthesis of extragonadal androgen may contribute to the progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer. We evaluated whether abiraterone acetate, an inhibitor of androgen biosynthesis, prolongs overall survival among patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who have received chemotherapy. METHODS: We randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, 1195 patients who had previously received docetaxel to receive 5 mg of prednisone twice daily with either 1000 mg of abiraterone acetate (797 patients) or placebo (398 patients). The primary end point was overall survival. The secondary end points included time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression (elevation in the PSA level according to prespecified criteria), progression-free survival according to radiologic findings based on prespecified criteria, and the PSA response rate. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 12.8 months, overall survival was longer in the abiraterone acetate-prednisone group than in the placebo - prednisone group (14.8 months vs. 10.9 months; hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.54 to 0.77; P<0.001). Data were unblinded at the interim analysis, since these results exceeded the preplanned criteria for study termination. All secondary end points, including time to PSA progression (10.2 vs. 6.6 months; P<0.001), progression-free survival (5.6 months vs. 3.6 months; P<0.001), and PSA response rate (29% vs. 6%, P<0.001), favored the treatment group. Mineralocorticoid-related adverse events, including fluid retention, hypertension, and hypokalemia, were more frequently reported in the abiraterone acetate-prednisone group than in the placebo - prednisone group. CONCLUSIONS: The inhibition of androgen biosynthesis by abiraterone acetate prolonged overall survival among patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who previously received chemotherapy. (Funded by Cougar Biotechnology; COU-AA-301 Clinical Trials. gov number, NCT00638690.) Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source


Su F.,Hoffmann-La Roche | Viros A.,Institute of Cancer Research | Viros A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Milagre C.,Institute of Cancer Research | And 50 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous squamous-cell carcinomas and keratoacanthomas are common findings in patients treated with BRAF inhibitors. METHODS: We performed a molecular analysis to identify oncogenic mutations (HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, CDKN2A, and TP53) in the lesions from patients treated with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib. An analysis of an independent validation set and functional studies with BRAF inhibitors in the presence of the prevalent RAS mutation was also performed. RESULTS: Among 21 tumor samples, 13 had RAS mutations (12 in HRAS). In a validation set of 14 samples, 8 had RAS mutations (4 in HRAS). Thus, 60% (21 of 35) of the specimens harbored RAS mutations, the most prevalent being HRAS Q61L. Increased proliferation of HRAS Q61L-mutant cell lines exposed to vemurafenib was associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-pathway signaling and activation of ERK-mediated transcription. In a mouse model of HRAS Q61L-mediated skin carcinogenesis, the vemurafenib analogue PLX4720 was not an initiator or a promoter of carcinogenesis but accelerated growth of the lesions harboring HRAS mutations, and this growth was blocked by concomitant treatment with a MEK inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in RAS, particularly HRAS, are frequent in cutaneous squamous-cell carcinomas and keratoacanthomas that develop in patients treated with vemurafenib. The molecular mechanism is consistent with the paradoxical activation of MAPK signaling and leads to accelerated growth of these lesions. (Funded by Hoffmann-La Roche and others; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00405587, NCT00949702, NCT01001299, and NCT01006980.) Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source


Marty F.M.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Winston D.J.,University of California at Los Angeles | Rowley S.D.,Hackensack University Medical Center | Vance E.,Texas Oncology Baylor Charles mmons Cancer Center | And 7 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: The use of available antiviral agents for the prevention of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is limited by frequent toxic effects and the emergence of resistance. CMX001 has potent in vitro activity against CMV and other double-stranded DNA viruses. We evaluated the safety and anti-CMV activity of CMX001 in patients who had undergone allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation. METHODS: From December 2009 through June 2011, a total of 230 patients with data that could be evaluated were enrolled in the study. We randomly assigned these adult CMV-seropositive transplant recipients from 27 centers to oral administration of CMX001 or placebo. Patients were assigned in a 3:1 ratio to five sequential study cohorts according to a dose-escalating, double-blind design. Randomization was stratified according to the presence or absence of acute graft-versus-host disease and CMV DNA in plasma. Patients received the study drug after engraftment for 9 to 11 weeks, until week 13 after transplantation. Polymerase-chain-reaction analysis of CMV DNA in plasma was performed weekly. Patients in whom CMV DNA was detected at a level that required treatment discontinued the study drug and received preemptive treatment against CMV infection. The primary end point was a CMV event, defined as CMV disease or a plasma CMV DNA level greater than 200 copies per milliliter when the study drug was discontinued. The analysis was conducted in the intention-to-treat population. RESULTS: The incidence of CMV events was significantly lower among patients who received CMX001 at a dose of 100 mg twice weekly than among patients who received placebo (10% vs. 37%; risk difference, -27 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -42 to -12; P = 0.002). Diarrhea was the most common adverse event in patients receiving CMX001 at doses of 200 mg weekly or higher and was dose-limiting at 200 mg twice weekly. Myelosuppression and nephrotoxicity were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with oral CMX001 at a dose of 100 mg twice weekly significantly reduced the incidence of CMV events in recipients of hematopoietic-cell transplants. Diarrhea was dose-limiting in this population at a dose of 200 mg twice weekly. Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source


Infante J.R.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology PLLC | Fecher L.A.,University of Pennsylvania | Falchook G.S.,University of Houston | Nallapareddy S.,Aurora University | And 15 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: Inhibition of MEK stops cell proliferation and induces apoptosis; therefore, this enzyme is a key anticancer target. Trametinib is a selective, orally administered MEK1/MEK2 inhibitor. We aimed to define the maximum tolerated dose and recommended phase 2 dose of trametinib and to assess its safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and response rate in individuals with advanced solid tumours. Methods: We undertook a multicentre phase 1 study in patients with advanced solid tumours and adequate organ function. The study was in three parts: dose escalation to define the maximum tolerated dose; identification of the recommended phase 2 dose; and assessment of pharmacodynamic changes. Intermittent and continuous dosing regimens were analysed. Blood samples and tumour biopsy specimens were taken to assess pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes. Adverse events were defined with common toxicity criteria, and tumour response was measured by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00687622. Findings: We enrolled 206 patients (median age 58·5 years, range 19-92). Dose-limiting toxic effects included rash (n=2), diarrhoea (n=1), and central serous retinopathy (n=2). The most common treatment-related adverse events were rash or dermatitis acneiform (n=165; 80%) and diarrhoea (87; 42%), most of which were grade 1 and 2. The maximum tolerated dose was 3 mg once daily and the recommended phase 2 dose was 2 mg a day. The effective half-life of trametinib was about 4 days. At the recommended phase 2 dose, the exposure profile of the drug showed low interpatient variability and a small peak:trough ratio of 1·81. Furthermore, mean concentrations in plasma were greater than the preclinical target concentration throughout the dosing interval. Pathway inhibition and clinical activity were seen, with 21 (10%) objective responses recorded. Interpretation: The recommended phase 2 dose of 2 mg trametinib once a day is tolerable, with manageable side-effects. Trametinib's inhibition of the expected target and clinical activity warrants its further development as a monotherapy and in combination. Funding: GlaxoSmithKline. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Porta C.,University of Pavia | Calvo E.,Centro Integral Oncologico Clara Campal | Climent M.A.,Instituto Valenciano Of Oncologia | Vaishampayan U.,Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute | And 10 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2012

Background: Elderly patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) may require special treatment considerations, particularly when comorbidities are present. An understanding of the efficacy and safety of targeted agents in elderly patients with mRCC is essential to provide individualized therapy. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of everolimus in elderly patients (those ≥65 and ≥70 yr of age) enrolled in RECORD-1. Design, setting, and participants: The multicenter randomized RECORD-1 phase 3 trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier, NCT00410124; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) enrolled patients with mRCC who progressed during or within 6 mo of stopping sunitinib and/or sorafenib treatment (n = 416). Intervention: Everolimus 10 mg once daily (n = 277) or placebo (n = 139) plus best supportive care. Treatment was continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Measurements: Median progression-free survival (PFS), median overall survival (OS), and time to deterioration in Karnofsky performance status (TTD-KPS) were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method; the log-rank test was used to compare treatment arms. Other outcomes evaluated included reduction in tumor burden, overall response rate (ORR), and safety. Results and limitations: In RECORD-1, 36.8% of patients were ≥65 yr and 17.5% were ≥70 yr of age. PFS, OS, TTD-KPS, reduction in tumor burden, and ORR were similar in the elderly and the overall RECORD-1 population. Everolimus was generally well tolerated in elderly patients, and most adverse events were grade 1 or 2 in severity. The toxicity profile of everolimus was generally similar in older patients and the overall population; however, peripheral edema, cough, rash, and diarrhea were reported more frequently in the elderly regardless of treatment. The retrospective nature of the analyses was the major limitation. Conclusions: Everolimus is effective and tolerable in elderly patients with mRCC. When selecting targeted therapies in these patients, the specific toxicity profile of each agent and any patient comorbidities should be considered. © 2011 European Association of Urology. Source

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