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Motzer R.J.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Hutson T.E.,Texas Oncology | Glen H.,Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Center | Michaelson M.D.,Massachusetts General Hospital | And 12 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2015

Background: Currently, metastatic renal cell carcinoma is treated with sequential single agents targeting VEGF or mTOR. Here, we aimed to assess lenvatinib, everolimus, or their combination as second-line treatment in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Methods: We did a randomised, phase 2, open-label, multicentre trial at 37 centres in five countries and enrolled patients with advanced or metastatic, clear-cell, renal cell carcinoma. We included patients who had received treatment with a VEGF-targeted therapy and progressed on or within 9 months of stopping that agent. Patients were randomised via an interactive voice response system in a 1:1:1 ratio to either lenvatinib (24 mg/day), everolimus (10 mg/day), or lenvatinib plus everolimus (18 mg/day and 5 mg/day, respectively) administered orally in continuous 28-day cycles until disease progression or unacceptable toxic effects. The randomisation procedure dynamically minimised imbalances between treatment groups for the stratification factors haemoglobin and corrected serum calcium. The primary objective was progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. This study is closed to enrolment but patients' treatment and follow-up is ongoing. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01136733. Findings: Between March 16, 2012, and June 19, 2013, 153 patients were randomly allocated to receive either the combination of lenvatinib plus everolimus (n=51), single-agent lenvatinib (n=52), or single-agent everolimus (n=50). Lenvatinib plus everolimus significantly prolonged progression-free survival compared with everolimus alone (median 14·6 months [95% CI 5·9-20·1] vs 5·5 months [3·5-7·1]; hazard ratio [HR] 0·40, 95% CI 0·24-0·68; p=0·0005), but not compared with lenvatinib alone (7·4 months [95% CI 5·6-10·2]; HR 0·66, 95% CI 0·30-1·10; p=0·12). Single-agent lenvatinib significantly prolonged progression-free survival compared with everolimus alone (HR 0·61, 95% CI 0·38-0·98; p=0·048). Grade 3 and 4 events occurred in fewer patients allocated single-agent everolimus (25 [50%]) compared with those assigned lenvatinib alone (41 [79%]) or lenvatinib plus everolimus (36 [71%]). The most common grade 3 or 4 treatment-emergent adverse event in patients allocated lenvatinib plus everolimus was diarrhoea (ten [20%]), in those assigned single-agent lenvatinib it was proteinuria (ten [19%]), and in those assigned single-agent everolimus it was anaemia (six [12%]). Two deaths were deemed related to study drug, one cerebral haemorrhage in the lenvatinib plus everolimus group and one myocardial infarction with single-agent lenvatinib. Interpretation: Lenvatinib plus everolimus and lenvatinib alone resulted in a progression-free survival benefit for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who have progressed after one previous VEGF-targeted therapy. Further study of lenvatinib is warranted in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Funding: Eisai Inc. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Agarwal N.,University of Utah | Sonpavde G.,Texas Oncology | Sonpavde G.,Baylor College of Medicine | Sternberg C.N.,San Camillo and Forlanini Hospitals
European Urology | Year: 2012

Context: Improved understanding of mechanisms underlying metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) progression has led to the recognition of multiple molecular targets and advances in the therapeutic landscape. The addition of abiraterone acetate, sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, and denosumab to the therapeutic armamentarium and the impending addition of MDV-3100 and radium-223 underscore the importance of androgen pathway inhibition, immunotherapy, tubulin antagonism, and pathophysiology of bone metastasis. Objective: Review the next generation of molecular targets in mCRPC. Evidence acquisition: Medline databases were searched for >100 original articles published as of October 18, 2011, with the search terms metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, targeted therapy, biologic agents, and immunotherapy. Proceedings from the last 5 yr of conferences of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, American Urological Association, European Society of Medical Oncology, and the European Association of Urology were also searched. We included novel and promising drugs that have reached clinical trial evaluation. Evidence synthesis: The major findings were addressed in an evidence-based fashion. Prospective trials and important preclinical data were analyzed. Conclusions: mCRPC is a disease with multiple molecular drivers. Molecular pathways being targeted in ongoing phase 3 trials are androgen signaling (MDV3100, TAK700), immunoregulatory pathways (ipilimumab, Prostvac-VF-TRICOM), Src (dasatinib), Met (cabozantinib), clusterin (custirsen), and angiogenesis (aflibercept, tasquinimod). The strides made in identifying multiple other novel molecular targets offer potential opportunities for further improving outcomes. © 2011 European Association of Urology. Source

Yang B.-B.,Amgen Inc. | Savin M.A.,Texas Oncology | Green M.,University of Melbourne
Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

Patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy are at risk for developing chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN). Filgrastim, a recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) that stimulates the proliferation, differentiation and function of neutrophils, is approved for the prevention of CIN. To eliminate the burden of daily filgrastim injection, pegfilgrastim, a long-acting form of filgrastim, was developed by covalently attaching a 20-kDa polyethylene glycol molecule to filgrastim to increase molecular size and thus reduce renal elimination. Consequently, neutrophil-mediated clearance is the primary mechanism for pegfilgrastim elimination. Therefore, after a single pegfilgrastim injection following chemotherapy treatment, pegfilgrastim concentration is sustained during neutropenia and decreases with neutrophil recovery. Pegfilgrastim has received marketing authorization approval from many regions to reduce the incidence of CIN based on the similar efficacy and safety of a single injection of 6 mg of pegfilgrastim administered once per chemotherapy cycle and 10 to 11 daily injections of filgrastim at 5 μg/kg. The efficient self-regulating clearance of pegfilgrastim allows administration once per chemotherapy cycle, thereby providing a more convenient treatment regimen than filgrastim. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Agarwal N.,University of Utah | Sonpavde G.,Texas Oncology | Sonpavde G.,Baylor College of Medicine
Future Oncology | Year: 2011

Treatment with docetaxel-based chemotherapy results in improved survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. However, all patients eventually develop progressive disease associated with poor outcomes. In this article, we discuss the available second-line therapeutic options following docetaxel, with a special focus on cabazitaxel, which is the first agent to yield extended survival as second-line therapy following docetaxel. Cabazitaxel, a novel semi-synthetic taxane, is effective even in docetaxel-resistant model systems. Recently, results of the Phase III TROPIC trial demonstrated improved survival with cabazitaxel plus prednisone compared with mitoxantrone and prednisone in patients with progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, following prior docetaxel, which led to approval by the US FDA. Source

Sonpavde G.,Texas Oncology | Sonpavde G.,Baylor College of Medicine | Bellmunt J.,University of the Sea | Schutz F.,Sao Jose Hospital | Choueiri T.K.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Current Oncology Reports | Year: 2012

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors have significantly improved outcomes in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Multiple VEGF inhibiting orally administered tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been approved including sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib and most recently, axitinib. One VEGF inhibiting monoclonal antibody, bevacizumab, is approved in combination with interferon. However, these agents, besides the known progression-free survival benefits, are associated with a small but real risk of potentially life threatening and contrasting toxicities of thrombosis (both venous and arterial) and bleeding. Appropriate patient selection for VEGF inhibitors and prevention as well as prompt intervention to manage thrombosis and bleeding are necessary to forestall serious morbidities and mortality. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source

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