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Emeryville, CA, United States

Nichols G.A.,Kaiser Permanente | Moler E.J.,Tethys BioScience Inc.
Diabetologia | Year: 2011

Aims/hypothesis: Diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and heart failure, as well as other serious complications, such as renal disease and depression. However, these conditions are often present prior to diabetes diagnosis. We sought to determine whether they increase the risk of developing diabetes independent of other risk factors. Methods: We identified 58,056 non-diabetic adults aged ≥30 years with no evidence of diabetes. Using electronic medical records, we identified the presence of four conditions at baseline (CVD, heart failure, renal disease and depression) and then estimated diabetes incidence over 5 years separately for patients with and without each of these conditions. Each incidence estimate was adjusted for baseline values of age, sex, fasting glucose, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, triacylglycerol, HDL-cholesterol, smoking and the presence of the other three conditions. Results: Patients with CVD were 35% (95% CI 23-48%) more likely to develop diabetes after controlling for other risk factors. Heart failure was independently associated with an increase in diabetes incidence of 48% (95% CI 27-73%), and depression was associated with a 10% (95% CI 2-20%) increase. Chronic kidney disease was associated with a non-significant risk increase of 10% (95% CI -2-25%). Conclusions/interpretation: Complications of diabetes are more prevalent among patients who will ultimately develop diabetes, and increase the risk of diabetes independently of other known risk factors. The apparent bidirectional relationships suggest that primary prevention of CVD may also help prevent diabetes. © The Author(s) 2010.

Nichols G.A.,Kaiser Permanente | Moler E.J.,Tethys BioScience Inc.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2010

Aims: Because metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as any three of five criteria, not all persons with MetS have the same risk factors. Whether the combinations of criteria confer equal diabetes risk is unknown. Methods: We identified 58,056 non-diabetic adults age >=30 with all MetS components measured in 2003-2004. We estimated age- and sex-adjusted diabetes incidence over 5 years for all possible combinations of MetS components. Results: The overall incidence rate of diabetes was 12.5/1000 person-years (95% CI 12.1-12.9). Although incidence increased with the MetS factor count, incidence varied by >9-fold in patients with 3 risk factors, >5-fold in patients with 4 factors, and >54-fold in patients with <3 factors. All two-factor combinations that included hyperglycemia had higher incidence rates than three- or four-factor combinations that did not. For example, incidence in patients with only hyperglycemia and obesity was 21.7/1000 person-years (95% CI 17.4-27.1), compared to 11.4 (9.8-13.4) among those with four components without hyperglycemia. Conclusions: Diabetes risk increases exponentially with MetS factor count, but varies substantially depending upon which factors are present. Hyperglycemia, regardless of the presence of MetS, is a much stronger predictor of incident diabetes than MetS without hyperglycemia. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Disclosed are systems and methods for developing diagnostic tests (e.g., detection, screening, monitoring, and prognostic tests) based on biomarker information from legacy clinical sample sets, for which only small sample volumes (e.g., about 0.05 to about 1.0 mL or less per sample) are typically available. For example, biomarkers (e.g., about 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, or more) may be detected in the clinical samples through the use of single molecule detection and each biomarker may be detected in an assay that includes about 1 L or less of a legacy clinical sample.

Tethys Bioscience Inc. | Date: 2010-10-28

A method of determining risk of diabetes is provided. In one embodiment, the method comprises: a) measuring the levels of a plurality of biomarkers in a blood samples obtained from a patient, wherein the plurality of biomarkers comprises at least five of the following biomarkers: glucose, adiponectin, CRP, IL2RA, ferritin, insulin and HbAIc; b) calculating a diabetes risk score for the patients using the levels and, optionally, patient age and/or gender. Results obtained from performing the assay on a reference population are similar or identical to those obtained using Formula I.

Tethys Bioscience Inc. | Date: 2013-03-14

The invention describes biomarkers which can be used to predict the likelihood that an individual will develop Diabetes. The biomarkers can also be used to screen large groups in order to identify individuals at risk of developing Diabetes.

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