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Yam A.Y.,Novartis | Wang X.,Novartis | Gao C.M.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Connolly M.D.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Diseases associated with the misfolding of endogenous proteins, such as Alzheimers disease and type II diabetes, are becoming increasingly prevalent. The pathophysiology of these diseases is not totally understood, but mounting evidence suggests that the misfolded protein aggregates themselves may be toxic to cells and serve as key mediators of cell death. As such, an assay that can detect aggregates in a sensitive and selective fashion could provide the basis for early detection of disease, before cellular damage occurs. Here we report the evolution of a reagent that can selectively capture diverse misfolded proteins by interacting with a common supramolecular feature of protein aggregates. By coupling this enrichment tool with protein specific immunoassays, diverse misfolded proteins and sub-femtomole amounts of oligomeric aggregates can be detected in complex biological matrices. We anticipate that this near-universal approach for quantitative misfolded protein detection will become a useful research tool for better understanding amyloidogenic protein pathology as well as serve as the basis for early detection of misfolded protein diseases. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Maciejewski B.S.,Pfizer | LaPerle J.L.,Pfizer | Chen D.,Pfizer | Ghosh A.,Pfizer | And 13 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology | Year: 2013

Alterations in fat metabolism, in particular elevated plasma concentrations of free fatty acids and triglycerides (TG), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), a member of the large family of membrane-bound O-acyltransferases, catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol formation. In the intestine, DGAT1 is one of the acyltransferases responsible for the reesterficiation of dietary TG. Following a single dose of a selective pharmacological inhibitor of DGAT1, PF-04620110, a dose-dependent inhibition of TG and vitamin A absorption postprandially was demonstrated in rodents and human subjects. In C57/BL6J mice, acute DGAT1 inhibition alters the temporal and spatial pattern of dietary lipid absorption. To understand the impact of DGAT1 inhibition on enterocyte lipid metabolism, lipomic profiling was performed in rat intestine and plasma as well as human plasma. DGAT1 inhibition causes an enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids within the TG class of lipids. This pharmacological intervention gives us insight as to the role of DGAT1 in human dietary lipid absorption. © 2013 the American Physiological Society. Source

Oh D.Y.,University of California at San Diego | Talukdar S.,University of California at San Diego | Bae E.J.,University of California at San Diego | Imamura T.,Shiga University of Medical Science | And 6 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2010

Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs), DHA and EPA, exert anti-inflammatory effects, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) functions as an ω-3 FA receptor/sensor. Stimulation of GPR120 with ω-3 FAs or a chemical agonist causes broad anti-inflammatory effects in monocytic RAW 264.7 cells and in primary intraperitoneal macrophages. All of these effects are abrogated by GPR120 knockdown. Since chronic macrophage-mediated tissue inflammation is a key mechanism for insulin resistance in obesity, we fed obese WT and GPR120 knockout mice a high-fat diet with or without ω-3 FA supplementation. The ω-3 FA treatment inhibited inflammation and enhanced systemic insulin sensitivity in WT mice, but was without effect in GPR120 knockout mice. In conclusion, GPR120 is a functional ω-3 FA receptor/sensor and mediates potent insulin sensitizing and antidiabetic effects in vivo by repressing macrophage-induced tissue inflammation. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Sullivan S.D.,University of Washington | Garrison Jr. L.P.,University of Washington | Rinde H.,BioBridge Strategies | Kolberg J.,Tethys Bioscience | Moler E.J.,Tethys Bioscience
Journal of Medical Economics | Year: 2011

Background: Personalized medicine requires diagnostic tests that stratify patients into distinct groups that may differentially benefit from targeted treatment approaches. This study compared the costs and benefits of two approaches for identifying those at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes for entry into a diabetes prevention program. The first approach identified high risk patients using impaired fasting glucose (IFG). The second approach used the PreDx Diabetes Risk Score (DRS) to further stratify IFG patients into high-risk and moderate-risk groups. Methods: A Markov model was developed to simulate the incidence and disease progression of diabetes and consequent costs and quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALY), comparing alternative approaches for identifying high-risk patients. We modeled direct medical costs, including the costs of the stratification testing, over a 10-year time horizon from a US payer perspective. Results: Stratification of IFG patients by the DRS method leads to improved identification and prevention among those at highest risk. At 5 years, the number needed to treat (NNT) in the IFG-only approach was 39 patients to prevent one case of diabetes compared to an NNT of 15 in the IFG+DRS approach. When compared to IFG alone, the IFG+DRS approach results in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $17,100/QALY gained at 5 years and would become cost saving in 10 years. In contrast and as compared to no stratification, the IFG-only approach would produce an ICER of $235,500/QALY gained at 5 years and $94,600/QALY gained at 10 years. The study findings are limited by the generalizability of the DRS validation study and uncertainty regarding the long-term effectiveness of diabetes prevention. Conclusions: The analysis indicates that the cost-effectiveness of diabetes prevention can be improved by better identification of patients at highest risk for diabetes using the DRS. © 2011 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved. Source

Shafizadeh T.B.,Tethys Bioscience | Moler E.J.,Tethys Bioscience | Kolberg J.A.,Tethys Bioscience | Nguyen U.T.,Tethys Bioscience | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Given the increasing worldwide incidence of diabetes, methods to assess diabetes risk which would identify those at highest risk are needed. We compared two risk-stratification approaches for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and a previously developed diabetes risk score, PreDx® Diabetes Risk Score (DRS). DRS assesses 5 yr risk of incident T2DM based on the measurement of 7 biomarkers in fasting blood. Methodology/Principal Findings: DRS was evaluated in baseline serum samples from 4,128 non-diabetic subjects in the Inter99 cohort (Danes aged 30-60) for whom diabetes outcomes at 5 years were known. Subjects were classified as having MetS based on the presence of at least 3 MetS risk factors in baseline clinical data. The sensitivity and false positive rate for predicting diabetes using MetS was compared to DRS. When the sensitivity was fixed to match MetS, DRS had a significantly lower false positive rate. Similarly, when the false positive rate was fixed to match MetS, DRS had a significantly higher specificity. In further analyses, subjects were classified by presence of 0-2, 3 or 4-5 risk factors with matching proportions of subjects distributed among three DRS groups. Comparison between the two risk stratification schemes, MetS risk factors and DRS, were evaluated using Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI). Comparing risk stratification by DRS to MetS factors in the total population, the NRI was 0.146 (p = 0.008) demonstrating DRS provides significantly improved stratification. Additionally, the relative risk of T2DM differed by 15 fold between the low and high DRS risk groups, but only 8-fold between the low and high risk MetS groups. Conclusions/Significance: DRS provides a more accurate assessment of risk for diabetes than MetS. This improved performance may allow clinicians to focus preventive strategies on those most in need of urgent intervention. © 2011 Shafizadeh et al. Source

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